page has: A new Krewson book Winschoten
move to Pennsylvania The
family of Elizabeth Cregier,
wife of Derrick Croesen The
second Esopus War Derrick and Elizabeth
Cruise on the Croesen family
Ashburn Chicago De Silla grave Joseph Ashburn character
A new Krewson book
I have just taken delivery of a book on
the Krewson family, The Croesen Families of America Volume I –
Croesen Families in the 1600s by Warren Cruise. I looks like it is
going to be enjoyable. I have only started looking at it. Here are
the first things to share:
On page 6 there is a table of the usual
translations of Dutch names to English.
Derrick (Dirck) - Richard
Hendrick - Henry
Jacobus - James
Joost - Joseph
Joris - George
Garret - Geoffry
Franz - Francis
Teunis - Anthony
Elsje - Alice
Neeltje - Eleanor, Nellie
Tryntje - Catherine
Catrina - Catharine
Antje - Ann
Maritje - Mary
Gerritje - Margaret
Wyntje - Lavinia
And on page 4 there is a table to place
New Amsterdam - Manhattan, New York
Breuckelen - Brooklyn, New York
Esopus (Wyltwyck) - Kingston, New
Fort Orange - Albany, New York
Staten Island (Staaten Eylant) –
Staten Island, New York
Pavonia - Near Paterson, New Jersey
Gowanus, Flatbush, Flatlands, New
Utrecht, Gravesend - were all in western Long Island and became
parts of Brooklyn
On page 6 there is speculation on the
meaning of the name Krewson, in the Netherlands spelled Croesen,
Kroesen or Kroes. It probably means 'curly hair'. The name is found
back to the early Middle Ages but there is no documented connection
between any of those people and our family - they may or may not be
The map shows Winschoten at the very north corner of the
Netherlands, close to the German border. I believe we drove through it
on the road between Amsterdam and Bremen (marked as A7) many years ago.
I have no memory of it, although I remember other places along that
The birthplace of Garret Dircksen
Croesen was Winschoten. Mrs GPI Hiskes-Knigge wrote this for Warren
Cruise in 1982:
The name Winschoten was first found in
a Charter in 1391. The town must be older, because the church dates
from the 13th century. We know also that when, in 1230,
the Monastery in Heiligerlee was built, Winschoten was already in
existence. The Nuns of the Monasteries of Heiligerlee and Beerta went
to the church in Winscholen. The present Long Street was formerly
called the White Women street, named in their honor.
About the origin and the ancient past
of Winschoten, no sources are available. There were terrible floods
coming from the Dollard (among them the one of 1277), and the water
even reached Winschoten. That dikes have existed is logical, because
there is still the Fishers Dike, the name of a street still being
Winschoten was for a long time unknown
(absent from records?). The inhabitants was mostly fishermen and
weavers, for which the Weavershorn is named. In 1568, the Eighty
Years War broke out and there was a battle at Heiligerlee where Count
Adolf Van Nassau was slain.
At the request of Count Willem Lodewijk
and the States General, Winschoten received walls and two fortresses
in 1593, namely at Hoogeburg (High Bridge) and Winschoterzijl. (A
zijl is a sluice between a little river of canal and the sea.) In the
same year the Spaniards were beaten. But in 1624, the Spaniards took
Winschoten again and burned down most of the town, the weaving mill
and the Monastery at Heiligerlee. In the following years, Winschoten
was in war several times, and finally the Pest (plaque) broke out. In
the year of 1665, almost the whole population was wiped out by war
and pestilence. This had also happened in the year 1624. It was so
bad that the corpses stayed in the streets for days for lack of
The church of Winschoten belonged
before the Reformation to the Abbey of Corvey in Hoxter on the Weser
(in Germany), who had as patron saint, Saint Vitus. The church in
Winschoten was consecrated to Saint Vitus, and later received the
ecclesiastical Coat of Arms as the Coat of Arms of the City: “in
azure the Holy Vitus, being a young man in natural color, dressed in
a tunic of silver, in the right hand a martyr's palm-branch of silver
and in the left hand a gold book and standing on a pedestal of
After the French Revolution in 1789,
Winschoten started to know better times. It received city status with
a mayor and commissioners and a constitution. An then they started to
plan the center of the town and its uses. In 1811, there were 2,250
habitants. Most streets were still soft and had no cobbles yet, but
Winschoten did get its Courthouse, and by the end of the 19th
contury there were about 9,000 inhabitants. Right now (1982),
Winschoten has about 28,000 inhabitants. It has a hospital and
schools of each denomination and a public school. The Courthouse is
gone, there is only a district court.
Winschoten is known for its three
windmills on the way to Heiligerlee, and sometimes it is called the
City of the Mills.
Notes on photographs of the Winschoten
church by Shirley A.C.S. taken in April 1995:
(The Nederland Hervomde Kerk, Reformed
Dutch Church, is in the Marketplace of Winschoten.) It was built
about 1300 and renovated in 1902. It was very likely the church that
Garret Dircksen Croesen attended before he emigrated to America in
1660 (approximately?). It was not damaged during World War II and
managed to survive German occupation. The church is beautifully
appointed. The wooden altar, pews, and pulpit are intricately
handcarved and very attractive.
Jan Peitersen Van Husum was born in
Husum in 1605-07. It is near the danish border, along the German
North Sea coast, in Schleswig (map below). The local government in
this information to Warren Cruise.
Husum developed harbor functions and
trade connections reaching beyond the region. In 1461, King Christian
I of Denmark granted permission to the 'Amsterdam traders' to ship
their goods to the Husum Harbor, from where they were transported
over land to Flensburg for shipment to Scandinavia.
1520 - Reformation comes to Husum.
1526 – Incorporation of the Neustadt
(New Town) when King Fredrick I of Denmark orders the expansion of
the harbor which includes the construction of a harbor fortification
and pontoon bridge.
1544 – Following the partitioning of
the country between King Christian III and his step-brothers Johann
(the Older) and Adolf, Husum becomes part of the “Gottofer
Portion”. (went to Adolf)
1577-1582 – On the site of a
Franciscan monastery, dissolved in 1527, Duke Adolf of
Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf builds a castle, which during the 17th
centry, serves as residence for the Duchesses-widows.
1582 – Renewed dedication as
municipal borough. Husum receives its own court and police system and
becomes the home of a sea court.
During this period, Husum develops into
the second largest city after Flensburg in the djukddoms Schleswig
and Holstein. Husum has about 5000 to 6000 residents. Duke Johann
Adolf of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf grants city rights to Husum.
(Jan's life in Husum would have been in
the early part of this time period, from about 1605 to 1625)
Around the turn of the century, Husum
declines economically. The reasons are export restrictions for grain
and malt in 1598 or 1596 – the malt and brewery industries had
developed into Husum's most important trade-competition by the
neighboring towns. Toning, whose harbor was expanded in 1613 and
friedrickstadt (founded in 1621), as well as the loss of the
marshlands in Husum's backcountry in the flooding in 1634, reduced
the grain business even further. An important problem for the sea
trade was the constant muddying of the harber.
Another factor slowing down the
economic vitality of the city was the wars during this century and
the resulting financial burdens.
1627-1629 – The dukedoms Schleswig
and Holstein as well as Jutland are occupied by imperial troops,
under the command of Albrecht van Wallenstein. Following the peace
agreement of Lubeck in 1629 between Emperor Ferdinand II and King
Christian IV of Denmark, the imperial troop withdrew.
1643 – The Swedish Army invades the
dukedoms following the declaration of war by Denmark against Sweden.
Duke Friedrick III of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf enters into a
neutrality agreement with Sweden.
1657 – Peace Agreement of Bromsebro.
1657 – In the renewed war between
Sweden and Denmark, Friedrich III of Gottorf enters into a secret
alliance with Sweden. In the Copenhagen Contract of May 2 1658,
Friedrich III of Denmark conveys the “Town of Schwabstedt”,
including the bailiwick “Rodemis” to the Duke of Gottorf.
1658 – After the renewed attack by
Carl X Gustov of Sweden against Denmark, troops of the Emperor as
well as troops from Brandenburg and Polish troops loyal to the Danish
King invade the Dukedoms and stay by Friedrich Wilhelm I of
Brandenburg, the “Grober Kurfurst” (The Great Elector) in Husum.
1684 – With the death of Duchess
Maria Elisabeth, wife of Friedrich III of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf,
ends the “Duchesses-widows period” of the Husum castle. Augusta,
a sister of Christian IV of Denmark, and wife of Johann Adolf of
Gottorf (1616) had the castle expanded until her death in 1639. Maria
Elisabeth continued the expansion. Both duchesses had been assigned
the “Hardes” bailiwick, i.e. the future town of Husum as life
endowment. The castle accumulated an important collection of
portraits of the Duke's family members and relatives.
1689 – Nicolaus Bruhns (Schwabstedt
1665) becomes organist at St. Marien. Bruhns, a student of Dietrich
Buxtehude, holds this position until his death in 1697. He is
considered one of the most important composers of the blooming
northern German Protestand secular music of the second half of the
1700 – In the beginning of the Nordic
War (1700-1721), during which the dukedoms Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf
sided with the superpower Sweden in order to reject the Danish
sovereignty claims, Husum becomes part of the battlefield: Danish
troops besiege the entrenchment at the end of the “Husumer Au” in
the southern marshland and destroy it. The siege of Tonning, the main
fortification of Gottof, brings no success.
1714 – Surrender of Tonning.
1721 – After the collapse of the
superpower of Sweden (Peace of Fredricksbory 1720) King Friedrick IV
of Denmark, on March 13, signs the occupation agreement in the Husum
castle, this taking possession of all of Gottof's areas in Schlesswig
with the royal portion of the “patent” of August 22 1721.
Gottorf's rule is reinstated only in the Holstein territories.
1738 – Foundation of the
“Commerce-Collegium”, an association of Husum's merchants with
the objective to revitalize the commerce and trades. The association
still exists today as “Commerzium”.
1751-1752 – Dramatic renovation of
the Husum castle. It subsequently becomes the seat of the City
Administration of Husum.
Kroesens move to Pennsylvania
Here are some bits and pieces about the
move from the NewYork area to Pennsylvania from the Warren Cruise
The family of Elizabeth Cregier,
wife of Derrick Croesen
- Derrick Kroesen was born 1662 in Breuckelen and died 1731
in Bucks Co Pennsylvania. His wife was Elizabeth Cregier.
- In the 1660s the community of New Amsterdam was
agricultural with a population of about 1500 and Breuckelen about 300.
- Derrick was not educated and never able to write his name.
- At 18 his father died, soon his mother re-married and sold
their farm, so Derrick moved to Staten Island and in 3 years married
there. He is recorded as one of the 'First settlers to Staten Island',
although it may actually been his father who acquired the land.
- In 1710 Derrick and Elizabeth moved to Bucks Co PA. Their
daughter Neeltje and her husband Carl Van Hasten had moved earlier to
Bucks Co and Derrick had visited them several times. “With the Van
Hastens comfortably situated, it afforded the Krosens temporary
housing. We have to remember that relocating in 1710 was not driving
down the New Jersey Turnpike for an hour or two, spending a few nights
at a nice motel and finally looking around for some property to buy.
There was no roads, several major rivers to cross and little to guide
them on their trip.”
- It seems that son-in-law Carl bought the land in
Pennsylvania with a partner who lived on the land. When the partner
died, Carl inherited his share and he moved to Bucks Co with Neeltje.
This 580 acre tract belonged to William Penn who granted it to his
cousin Arthur Cook, who sold it to John Swift, who sold it to Van
Hasten and his partner, Johnson. In 1712 Derrick and Elizabeth
purchased this piece of land from Carl. And 8 years later he bought
another 500 acres (not from Carl).
- All Derrick's children came to Bucks Co. Neeltje was there
earlier, Garret the oldest came later in 1718 and the rest came with
Derrick in 1710. Neeltje died very young and her two sons barely knew
- Derrick and Elizabeth joined the Bensalem-Neshaminy Church
when they arrived in Bucks Co. “The B-N Church remained the home church
for the Kroesen family until approximately 1730 when a secession of
members divided to form the Reformed Dutch Church at Feasterville.
Apparently the membership of the B-N Church had become dominated by
Scotch-Irish settlers and served by Scotch Presbyterian ministers. This
arrangement was disquieting as the Dutch preferred their own minister
who would preach in the Dutch language.”
- There is a stone built into a house which says “Derrick
Kroesen May 12 1731”. This is the date of his death. Derrick may have
started a house which Garret, his son, finished and marked with his
father's death. “The house was torn down in 1871 and a secret hiding
place was discovered behind a closet large enough to hold several
people. In those days, that was probably necessary.” In 1935 a new
house was built on the original foundation the stone was again placed
in the east gable wall.
Elizabeth was born in Manhatten in
1662. She was the daughter of Francis (Frans) Cregier, a young
merchant operating down on the South River, near New Castle,
Delaware. Walburg De Sille and Francis were married 29 Feb 1660 in
Manhatten. He died when Elizabeth was three years old. Her mother
Walburg, later remarried William Bogardus, who was the son of the
Rev. Everardus Begardus and Anneke Jans of Manhattan. William was
recently divorced from his first wife, Wyntje Sybrants. Walburg and
William had a family: Cornelia, Cathaina, Saartje, Everardus, Maria,
Lucretia and Blandina. Elizabeth had no full sisters or brothers.
Elizabeth's grandfather, Martin Cregier
(Marten Kregier), had a distinguished history in New Netherland. He
and his wife Elizabeth with two children Martin and Francis, arrived
in New Amsterdam around 1642. Martin was employed by the West India
Company as a militia sergeant. He distinguished himself as a
frontiersman, Indian fighter, diplomat and financier. He was well
educated, wrote detailed diaries of the Indian wars and was emissary
for Stuyvesant several times to the British and the Indians. He was a
tavern keeper and a shareholder in a privateer ship, la Garce. In
1653 he was appointed the first Burgomaster of New Amsterdam and he
served several terms. When the British took New Netherlands, Martin
was one of the nine who signed the surrender on behalf of the Dutch.
He moved up the Hudson past Albany (Mohawk Valley) to distance
himself from the English. He died in 1711 at about 90. His children
with Elizabeth were Martin Jr., Francis, Catharine, Willem, Tryntie,
and Lysbeth. He later married Janette and had children, Margaritse,
Catrina, Johana, Samuel and Gertruy.
Elizabeth's maternal grandfather was
Nicasius de Sille born in 1610 in Arnhem Gelderland in eastern
Netherlands. He was educated and rose to Advocate-Fiscal of the
States General. The Dutch government and the West India company send
him to be First Councillor to Stuyvesant. “A man well versed in the
law and not unacquainted with the military affairs, of good
character, and satisfactory requirements.” His first wife is
unknown. He came to America with two children Lawrence and Walburg.
Both married children of Martin Cregier. Nicasius remarried in
America to Trynje Crougers Van de Hage and was divorced in a year
due to her drinking. He was First Councillor for three years and then
was Schout-Fiscal (sort of chief law enforcer) of New Netherland
until the England took over. He had land in Manhattan and in Long
So Elizabeth's ancestry was: mother –
Walburg De Sille; grandfather- Nicasius De Sille 23 Sep 1610-1691
married Walburg Everwijn; great grandfather – Laurens De Sille 1
Mar 1572-1637 married Walbertha Merwyns; great great grandfather –
Nicasius De Sille 3 Aug 1545 -1600 married Genovefere de Romaingnan.
The Second Esopus
Martin Kregier (Cregier) was the grandfather of Elizabeth Cregier, wife
of Derrick Kroesen. Martin was the Dutch commander in the Esopus War
and recorded its events. This is a summary of some of the information
found in The Croesen Families of America Volume 1 by Warren Cruise.
Following that is a translation of the original journal.
The second Esopus (Wildwyck) war commenced on the 7th of June 1663.
Most of the men had left the fort area earlier and were in the fields
tending their crops. Apparently, about mid-morning, the Indians began
to arrive at the fort. There were no efforts to restrain them as they
often circulated within the fort, selling different products and wares
to the inhabitants. The settlers were unaware that the Indians had
already destroyed the small village of New Hope, several miles away,
and were planning the same for Esopus.
The Indians had taken stock of the situation when two Dutch riders rode
hurriedly into the fort, spreading word that New Hope had been
destroyed. Once the alarm was sounded, the Indians started their
massacre. Much of the village inside the fort was destroyed in the
ensuing fire, immediately killing twenty-one persons and taking many
prisoners – one man, eight women and twenty-six children.
Martin Cregier was immediately appointed by Stuyvesant to lead a
military contingent involving more than two hundred men and equipment.
Of the men involved, forty-one were Indians from Long Island, and seven
Negroes. They set out and arrived at Esopus on the 4th July 1663 and
would not return to Manhattan until the 3rd January 1664.
During that time, Martin and his men pursued the offending Indians,
capturing prisoners of their own and killing several others when they
could find them. They burned and destroyed the Indian corn fields to
eliminate their food supplies. This occurred in the fall of the year
with constant heavy rains adding to the problems of traversing
difficult terrain. Quantities of supplies were sent by sloops up the
Hudson River to a redoubt or small docking area on the river where they
were unloaded and under troop escort, transported inland a short
distance to Esopus.
Martin attempted to trade the Christian hostages whenever possible in
exchange for goods or Indian prisoners, but he set strict conditions
for the negotiations. A few of the captives were returned.
During this expedition, Martin wrote daily journals involving some
fifty-two transcribed and typewritten pages. The original handwritten
pages must have been equivalent to a book.
From the fort there were unsuccessful scouting expeditions and the
troops protected the farmers bringing in the harvest. Daily detachments
were sent out with reapers, often with three detachments, two with the
reapers, and one lying in ambush waiting for the Indians. It was
getting towards the end of August, and there was still no success on
the recovery of any of the hostages.
Martin received word from Manhattan that the Esopus Indians may have
joined forces with the Manissing and Wappinger Indian tribes.
They planned to attack the fort in the next few days with four hundred
men. New orders declared that no one was to leave the fort without an
When harvest was done, Martin set out with 55 men to
find the Indians. They found the Indian fort and in a surprise attack
they killed a number of them with a much lower loss on
the Dutch side. Also the chief Papequanaehan was killed and 23 Dutch
captives freed. The Dutch also took some captives, looted the Indians'
belongings and destroyed what they did not take. They did let the maize
crops of the Indians stand, although it was destroyed later. About a
month later, Martin made another foray with 150 men, but the fort had
been abandoned. The rest of the captives were returned by the Indians
and trade with them renewed. Peace was made official on 15 May 1664.
Martin Kregier was to serve Stuyvesant on other occasions following
The image is a page of the original journal.
The Second Esopus War; by Capt. Martin
With an account of the Massacre at Wildwyck,
And the names of those killed, wounded, and taken prisoners, by the
Indians on that occasion.
Translated from the original Dutch MS
The following narrative gives an account of the Massacre at Kingston
(Wildwyck) and Hurley (the New Village or Niew Dorp). This is of
interest to the Descendants of Keziah Keturah Van Benthuysen, because
the families of Willem Crom—Mayken Hendricks–Jan Joosten, Evert Pels
and Aert Jacobsen Van Wagenen (Ancestors of Keziah Keturah Van
Benthuysen) were living there at the time. The general area is often
referred to as the Esopus, because the Esopus creek runs into the
Hudson river nearby. In fact the region was called the Esopus prior to
the establishment of Wildwyck and Niew Dorp.
Maycke Henricks, is one of our ancestors who was living in Niew Dorp,
the new village, when the attack came, and she and two of her children
were taken prisoner. Her first husband Willem Crom died in Holland in
about 1659, after which she married Jan Joosten van Meteren. They with
5 children came to the New World in September of 1662 and soon
thereafter settled in Niew Dorp, i.e. the new Village now called Hurley.
One family history writer says that One of the sons of Evert Pels was
also captured and carried away in the Indian attack and that when he
was finally found about a year and a half later, he was married to an
Indian Girl and would not leave her and their child to return to
Kingston; but remained thereafter with the Indian people. His name is
not listed among to captives, however it may be in the list
communicated to the Council of New Netherlands on the 10th of June. The
attack on Kingston occurred on Thursday, the 7th of June, 1663.
MASSACRE AT THE ESOPUS.
The Court at Wildwyck to the Council of N. Netherland.
Right Honorable, most respected, wise, prudent and very discreet Lords.
We, your Honors' faithful subjects have to report, pursuant to the
order of the Rt Honble Heer Director General, in the form of a Journal,
that in obedience to his Honor's order, received on the 30th of May
last, we caused the Indian Sachems to be notified on the 5th of June,
to be prepared to expect the arrival of the Rt Honble Heer Director
General, to receive the promised presents, and to renew the peace. This
notification was communicated to them through Capt. Thomas Chambers, to
which they answered—“If peace were to be renewed with them, the Honble
Heer Director General should, with some unarmed persons, sit with them
in the open field, without the gate, as it was their own custom to meet
unarmed when renewing peace or in other negotiations. "But they,
unmindful of the preceding statement, surprized and attacked us between
the hours of 11 and 12 o'clock in the forenoon on Thursday the 7th
instant Entering in bands through all the gates, they divided and
scattered themselves among all the houses and dwellings in a friendly
manner, having with them a little maize and some few beans to sell to
our Inhabitants, by which means they kept them within their houses, and
thus went from place to place as spies to discover our strength in men.
And after they had been about a short quarter of an hour within this
place, some people on horseback rushed through the Mill gate from the
New Village, crying out; “The Indians have destroyed the New Village!”
And with these words, the Indians here in this Village immediately
fired a shot and made a general attack on our village from the rear,
murdering our people in their houses with their axes and tomahawks, and
firing on them with guns and pistols; they seized whatever women and
children they could catch and carried them prisoners outside the gates,
plundered the houses and set the village on fire to windward, it
blowing at the time from the South. The remaining Indians commanded all
the streets, firing from the corner houses which they occupied and
through the curtains outside along the highways, so that some of our
inhabitants, on their way to their houses to get their arms, were
wounded and slain. When the flames were at their height the wind
changed to the west, were it not for which the fire would have been
much more destructive. So rapidly and silently did Murder do his work
that those in different parts of the village were not aware of it until
those who had been wounded happened to meet each other, in which way
the most of the others also had warning. The greater portion of our men
were abroad at their field labors, and but few in the village. Near the
mill gate were Albert Gysbertsen with two servants, and Tjerck Claesen
de Wit; at the Sheriff's, himself with two carpenters, two clerks and
one thresher; at Cornelius Barentsen Sleght's, himself and his son ; at
the Domine's, himself and two carpenters and one labouring man ; at the
guard house, a few soldiers ; at the gate towards the river, Henderick
Jochemsen and Jacob, the Brewer; but Hendrick Jochemsen was very
severely wounded in his house by two shots at an early hour. By these
aforesaid men, most of whom had neither guns nor side arms, were the
Indians, through God's mercy, chased and put to flight on the alarm
being given by the Sheriff. Capt. Thomas Chambers, who was wounded on
coming in from without, issued immediate orders (with the Sheriff and
Commissaries,) to secure the gates; to clear the gun and to drive out
the Savages, who were still about half an hour in the village aiming at
their persons, which was accordingly done. The burning of the houses,
the murder and carrying off of women and children is here omitted, as
these have been already communicated to your Honors on the 10th June.
After these few men had been collected against the Barbarians, by
degrees the others arrived who it has been stated, were abroad at their
field labors, and we found ourselves when mustered in the evening,
including those from the new village who took refuge amongst us, in
number 69 efficient men, both qualified and unqualified. The burnt
palisades were immediately replaced by new ones, and the people
distributed, during the night, along the bastions and curtains to keep
On the 10th inst., 10 horsemen were commanded to ride down to the
Redoubt1 and to examine its condition. They returned with word that the
soldiers at the Redoubt had not seen any Indians. They brought also
with them the Sergeant, who had gone the preceding morning to the
Redoubt, and as he heard on his return of the mischief Committed by the
Indians in the village, he went back to the Redoubt and staid there. In
addition to the Sergeant they brought the men who had fled from the new
On the 16th , towards evening, Sergeant Christiaen Niessen went with a
troop of soldiers, sent us by your Honors, being 42 men, and three
wagons, to the Redoubt, with letters for the Manhatans, addressed to
your Honors, and to bring up ammunition from the Redoubt. On their
return, the Indians made an attempt at the first hill, to take the
ammunition from these troops. The Sergeant having divided his men into
separate bodies, evinced great courage against the Indians, skirmishing
with them from the first, to past the second hill, and defending the
wagons so well that they arrived in safety in the village. He had,
however, one killed and six wounded. The dead man was brought in next
morning, having been stripped naked, and having had his right hand cut
off by the Indians. Some of the Indians were also killed, but the
number of these is not known. This skirmishing having been heard in the
village, a reinforcement of horse and foot was immediately ordered out,
but before they arrived the Indians had been put to flight by the above
This, Right Honorable Lords, is what we have deemed necessary to
communicate to you in the form of a journal as to how and in what
manner the Indians have acted towards us and we towards them in the
preceding circumstances. And we humbly and respectfully request your
Honors to be pleased to send us hither for the wounded by the earliest
opportunity, some prunes and linen with some wine to strengthen them,
and whatever else not obtainable here your Honors may think proper;
also, carabines, cutlasses, and gun flints, and we request that the
carabines may be Snaphaunce, as the people here are but little
conversant with the use of the arquebuse (vyer roer) ; also some spurs
for the horsemen. In addition to this, also, some reinforcements in men
inasmuch as harvest will commence in about 14 days from date. Herewith
ending, we commend your Honors to God's fatherly care and protection.
Done, Wildwyck this 20th June 1663.
ROELOF SWARTWOUT, the mark of ALBERT GYSBERTSEN,
TIERECK CLASSEN DEWITT, THOMAS CHAMBERS,
GYSBERT VAN IMBROCH, CHRISTIAEN NYSSEN,
LIST OF THE KILLED AT
Barent Gerretsen murdered in front of his house.
Jan Alberts " in his house.
Lechten Dirreck “ on the farm.
Willem Jansen Seba “ opposite his door.
Willem Jansen Hap “ in Pieter van Hael's house.
Jan the Smith “ in his house.
Hendrick Jansen Looman “ on the farm.
Thomas Chambers' negro “ on the farm.
Hey Olferts “ in the gunner's house.
Hendrick Martensen on the farm.
Dominicus in Jan Alberts' house.
Christiaen Andriesen on the Street.
Lichten Dirreck's wife burnt, with her lost fruit, behind Barent
Mattys Capito's wife killed and burnt in the house.
Jan Albertsen's wife, big with child, killed in front of her house.
Pieter van Hael's wife shot and burnt in her house.
Jan Alberts little girl murdered with her mother.
Willem Hap's child burnt alive in the house.
Master Gysbert's wife1. Hester Douwe.
Sara the daughter of Hester Douwe.
Grietje, Domine Leer's wife.
Femmetje, sister of Hilletje, being recently married to Joost Ariaens.
Tjerek Claessen de Witt's oldest daughter.
Dominie Laer's child
Ariaen Gerritsen's daughter.
Two little boys of Mattys Roeloffsen.
Killed in the New Village:
Marten Harmensen found dead and stript naked behind the wagon.
Jacques Tyssen beside Barent's house.
Derrick Ariaensen shot on his horse.
1 Surgeon Imbroch's wife was the daughter of the Honble Mr. La
Montagne, Vice Director of fort Orange
Jan Gerritsen on Volckert's bouwery.
Of Louwis du bois, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 1 3
of Mattheu blanchan, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Of Antoni Crupel, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1
Of Lambert Huybertsen, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3
Of Marten Harmensen, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4
Of Jan Joosten 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Of Barent Harmensen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1
Of Grietje Westercamp, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3
Of Jan Barents, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Of Michiel Ferre, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 2
Of Henderick Jochems, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Of Henderick Martensen, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Of Albert Heymans; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
— — Women 8 Ch'n.26
Houses burnt in Wildwyck.
Of Michiel Ferre, . . . . . .. 1 Of Hans Carolusen, . . . . . . 1
Of Willem Hap . . . . . . . . . 1 Of Pieter van Hael, . . . . . .. 1
Of Mattys Roeloffsen, . . . . 1 Of Jacob boerhans, . . . . . . . . .2
Of Albert Gerretsen, . . . . . 1 Of Barent Gerretsen, . . . . . . 2
Of Lichten Dirrick, . . . . . . 1 Of Mattys . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The new village is entirely destroyed except a new uncovered barn, one
rick and a little stack of reed.
Wounded in Wildwyck
Thomas Chambers, shot in the woods.
Henderick Jochemsen, “ in his house.
Michiel Ferre,2 “ in front of his house.
Albert Gerretsen, “ in front of his house.
Andries Barents, “ in front of his house.
Jan du parck, “ in the house of Aert Pietersen Tack.
Henderick the Heer Director General's Servant in the street in front of
Paulus the Noorman in the street.
2 Died of his wounds on the 16th June.. 3 Ancestor of Keziah Keturah
Van Benthuysen; 4 Jan Joosten’s wife was Maykey Hendircks, widow of
JOURNAL OF THE ESOPUS WAR.
On the 4th July we entered the Esopus Kill in front of the Redoubt with
the two Yachts, and sent the Sergeant Pieter Ebel with 40 men up to the
village Wildwyck to fetch wagons ; he returned to the river side about
2 o'clock in the afternoon accompanied by Serjeant Christiaen Nyssen,
60 men and 9 wagons; they loaded these and departed with them to the
Village where I arrived towards evening. Saw nothing in the world
except three Indians on a high hill near the Redoubt.
5th ditto. Returned to the water side with 60 men, 10 horsemen, and 9
wagons to bring up supplies, but saw scarcely anything on the way.
6th ditto. Made another journey to the shore with 10 wagons and brought
up the remainder of the supplies, but did not perceive anything. In the
evening went for grass with 12 wagons 30 Soldiers and 10 horsemen ;
then saw 10 or 12 Indians calling to each other but nothing further
7th ditto. Went again twice for grass with 50 men and 12 horsemen but
saw nothing. Two Indians arrived at the fort about 2 o'clock in the
afternoon with a deer and some fish. Said they came from the river side
and that they had been at the Redoubt where they had traded some fish
for tobacco ; that they had left their Canoe at the Redoubt, & that
they are Wappinger Indians. Meanwhile detained them and conveyed them
to the guard house.
8th ditto. Sunday. About noon came 5 Indians near our fort—they called
out to us to know if we had any Indians in the fort ? To which we
answered, Yes : They asked, why we detained them as they were Wappinger
Indians ? To which we answered, they ought to keep at a distance as we
could not distinguish one tribe of Indians from another, and if we
found that they had not done any injury to the Dutch, we should release
them. We told them also, that they must keep away from here, and go
home, for if we should meet them in the woods we would kill them as
well as the other Indians—if they were desirous to come here to speak
to us, they must stick up a white flag. Whereupon they answered, 'Tis
well, adieu; and thereupon went their way. Immediately after their
departure, sent out 40 soldiers and 10 horsemen to look after the
cattle, whether they had not been near them, but on reaching these they
did not remark any mischief—they, therefore, returned with the cattle
to the fort. After the afternoon sermon we examined the oldest Indian
as to whether he was not acquainted with some Esopus Indians and
whether he would not lead us to them—gave him fair words and promised
him a present ; for the Dutch at the Esopus bad told us that some
Indians dwelt about two miles from there wherefore we were resolved to
go in search of them the same evening with 50 men. But this Indian.
said to us—Go not there, for the Indians have gone thence and dwell now
back of Magdalen Island1 on the main land in the rear of a Cripple bush
on the east side of Fort Orange river, and number 8 men 9 women and 11
children ; and he even offered to guide us thither if we had a boat to
put us across the river. Whereupon it was resolved by the Council of
War to despatch two parties that same evening to procure some craft to
put us over the river. I, therefore, sent Sergeant Christiaen Nyssen
and Jan Peersen. each with 16 men, to look up a boat. The same old
Indian betrayed his companion who had come with him on the preceding
day into the fort—stating that he had assisted the Esopus Indians
against the Dutch, and for so doing had received in hand 6 fathom of
Sewan, [wampum]; that 9 Wappingers and 30 Manissings were with the
Esopus Indians and aided them—also that he said they were together
about 200 Indians strong.
1 Magdalen island is situate between the Upper and Lower Red Hook
Landings. These Indians must therefore have been in the town of
Redhook—Dutchess co. 9th ditto. (July 1663) Monday I marched very early
[with 40 Soldiers] and.10 horsemen to the water side to ride up and
fetch planks to construct a Cabin to store the provisions and
ammunition. About o'clock the two detachments, I had sent out in the
evening, to look for craft, came to me at the Redoubt, but they saw
neither Indians nor boat. They were marched all together to fort
Wildwyck and arrived there about 12 o'clock Then sent 30 men with 10
horsemen out-scouting, who returned about 4 o'clock; had seen nothing.
About 6 o'clock Peiter Wolfertsen' and Lieutenant Stilwil arrived here
with their troops; I then immediately called a Council of War and it
was resolved unanimously to set out in the evening with 20 Soldiers and
12 Indians under the command of Christiaen Niesen and Peiter Wolfertsen
in order to visit the East shore near Magdalen Island; to see if they
could not surprize the Esopus Indians who were lying there; they took
the old Indian along as a guide, who well knew where they lay.
10th ditto. I have gone again to the river side with 40 Soldiers and 10
horsemen to fetch plank. In returning, the horse men on the right flank
rode too far from the foot soldiers and alongside the mountain on which
12 to 15 Savages lay, in ambush who simultaneously fired a at the
horsemen one of whom they shot through the boot, and grazed a horse. On
hearing this, we immediately reinforced the cavalry with 25 men,
pursued the Indians through the mountain a good half hour, but they
would not once make a stand; we therefore returned to the wagons where
I had left 15 men and marched together to the Village of Wildwyck. In
the afternoon, the scouting party went out again ; I sent therewith
Lieutenant Stilwil with 15 men of his Company and Sergeant Pieter Ebel
with 28 men & 20 Indians with 10 horsemen. They discovered nothing
except a path which the Indians found by which Savages had recently
passed to their fort; they followed this a long was, but saw nothing.
Meanwhile, they returned all together.
11th ditto. Again sent out a party to the Mountain near the water side,
but they saw nothing; they returned in the evening.
12th ditto. Pieter Wolfertsen & Sergeant Niessen returned with
their troops, bringing with them one Squaw and three children whom they
had captured; they killed five armed Indians and a woman; the Esopus
Captain (Weldoverste) was among the slain; they cut off his hand which
they brought hither. Had not the Indian led them astray and missed the
houses, they would have surprized all the Indians who were there to the
number of 28, with women and children. For through the mistake of the
Indian, our people first came about midday where they found the Indians
posted and in arms. They immediately fell on the latter and routed and
pursued them. In the chase one of our soldiers was slain. Meanwhile the
huts were plundered wherein they found 19 Blankets 9 Kettles a lot of
Sewan; and 4 Muskets belonging to the Indians who were killed. They
returned on board with the plunder and four prisoners, and arrived safe
except one of our Soldiers who was bit in the leg by a rattlesnake.
About 5 o'clock in the afternoon, I went with 60 men to the river side,
to bring up the booty and prisoners; returned to the fort in the
evening ; encountered no harm.
13th ditto. Examined the Squaw prisoner and enquired if she were not
acquainted with some Esopus Indians who abode about here? She answered
that some Cattskill Indians lay on the other side near the Sagers Kill,
but they would not fight against the Dutch; says also that an Indian on
the preceding evening before our people attacked them, had brought news
from the fort of the Esopus Indians that many Dutch, English and
Indians had gone from the Manhatans to the Fsopus and that they should
be on their guard, for the Hackinsack Indians had brought the news to
the fort of the Esopus Indians. Then Long Jacob, the Chief who lived
there with the Indians demanded,
What should they do? Should they fly toward their fort or not? They
then concluded to remain there, for the Chief said, Were the Dutch to
come to the Fort and we also were in it, we should be all slaughtered;
tis best for us to remain here on the opposite shore; the Dutch would
not learn much of us; States also further, that the Indian had said
that 40 Manissing Indians had arrived at their fort, and that 40 more
were to come on the neat day; further says, that each night they
conveyed the prisoners always to a particular place without the fort
and remained themselves therein; says also that they were resolved to
make a stand in their fort, and that they had, moreover, in their fort
9 horses with which they draw palisades, and had sold a horse to the
Mannissing Indians; that the Indians had also three houses in which
they reside, these were 4 hours farther off; says also, that one Sachem
in the fort would advise them to negotiate peace, but the other Sachems
would not listen to it; says also, that the fort is defended by three
rows of palisades, and the houses in the fort encircled by thick cleft
palisades with port holes in them, and covered with bark of trees; says
that the fort is quadrangular but that the Angles are constructed
between the first and second rows of palisades and that the third row
of palisades stands full eight feet off from the others towards the
interior, between the two first rows of palisades and the houses, and
that the fort stands on the brow of a hill and all around is table land.
Sent also for Mr Gysbert's wife1 [She had been taken prisoner as before
stated by the Indians on the burning of the village of Wildwyck but had
effected her escape – Ed] and asked her if it were so? She answered, it
was true, and said they had built a point near unto the water to secure
it. Then again examined the Wappinger prisoner and asked, why he had
aided the Esopus Indians? Said it was not true and that his mate the
old Indian, had belied him. Asked him if he would guide us to the fort
of the Esopus Indians? Answered, Yes; and says the Esopus Indians are
about 80 warriors strong, but does not know how many have come there
belonging to other tribes. Says also that the fort is defended with
triple rows of palisades, as the Squaw had stated. Whereupon the
council of war decided, firstly to await news either from above or
below as to what the Mohawks had resolved respecting the
prisoners—whether they could have them restored before our troops
should proceed against the fort to achieve the self same thing. On the
same day two detachments went out; one to scout, the other on an
expedition, but they returned in the evening, having seen scarcely any
14th ditto. (July 1663) 50 men were out again in the woods behind the
new burnt village and a scouting party, but hardly any thing occurred,
nor was any thing seen.
15th ditto. The Heer de Decker arrived here with Jan Davets and 5
Mohawks; had them conducted from the river side by 50 men and 10
horsemen. Nothing else transpired.
16th ditto. The Heer de Decker assembled .the Council of War and it was
resolved that Jan Davets accompany the 5 Mohawks to the fort of the
Esopus Indians to see on what terms the Christian prisoners will be
restored, but after divers discourses Jan Davets declined going with
them, although the Heer de Decker had, the day before, drawn up and
prepared an Instruction for him, but before the time appointed he
refused to go. Meanwhile it is resolved that the Mohawks should go
thither, and they requested of us that they might take with them some
of our prisoners to present them to the Esopus Indians as a suitable
introduction to obtain some of their prisoners in return, or to induce
them to surrender them. The Council concluded that a Captive Girl
should be given to the Mohawks and about 63 guilders in Sewan in order
to ascertain what they could accomplish thereby; for it was reported at
Fort Orange, as the Heer de Decker informed us, that the Esopus Indians
had said—If they could obtain payment for the land, named the Great
Plot (het groote Stuck,) then they should give up all the prisoners.
Now, it is impossible to determine whether this be so or not.
Meanwhile, the Mohawks who were going thither were directed to inquire
shout it, and they promised us to bring us an answer the next day about
noon. Had 3 parties out in the interim; one to the shore to bring
cattle, another for wood and a third, scouting. They returned all at
the same time; experienced no difficulty.
17th ditto. (July 1663) Three parties were out in ambush, but saw
18th ditto. Six sloops arrived here from the Manhatans in which Juriaen
Blanck brought up provisions for our troops ; had them conveyed up
under a guard; a party was also in the field to protect those reaping
the Barley and a party lay in Ambush. They returned towards evening;
19th ditto. Sent out 10 Soldiers and 10 Indians scouting, they did not
meet any one. In the evening about 7 o'clock, the three Mohawks
returned from the Esopus Indians. They had brought three Indians and
two Dutch women and 2 Children whom they left about two hours from
Wildwyck; said, they had been freely given, and had they not been so
tired, they should have brought them with them to the fort; said the
Esopus Indians had abandoned the fort, and had retired to the Mountains
where they were mostly dispersed here & there hunting.
20th ditto. Sent Jan Davets with 2 Mohawks to the 3 Esopus Indians who
were in the woods with the above named prisoners, to see if he could
get, and bring with him the four prisoners from here, and have a talk
with the Indians relative to the other prisoners; whether they will not
restore these to us; returned about noon with a woman whom one of the
Mohawks had fetched; but he, himself, had not been with the Indians as
one of the Mohawks had been taken sick and he was obliged to remain
with him. In the afternoon one of the Mohawks returned thither, he took
with him half a loaf for the prisoners who remained with the above
mentioned Esopus Indians. Being come there, he asked the Esopus Indians
whether they would not entrust the 3 prisoners to him to convey them to
the Dutch; whereupon they allowed him to take the 3 prisoners, with
whom he arrived at the fort about 11 o'clock at night, but under
promise as they informed us, that they should have in return their
three prisoners whom we held. The prisoners told us that the Esopus
Indians had fled to a high mountain through fear of the Dutch, and that
they lay here and there in small bands, and that the prisoners were
also distributed and dispersed among them here and there, and were not
together and that they would not trust them in their fort, and that the
Indians daily threatened them—Should the Dutch come thither, we will
give you a Knock and Kill you all at once. Were thus a long time in
terror. Meanwhile we had some scouting parties out, who returned having
seen nothing—had also a party to cut barley; came back safe.
21st ditto. Three Sloops have come from the Manhatans, with which a
supply of provisions for this garrison has arrived in Rut Jacobsen's
Yacht. Sent three convoys to the water side and parties to cut corn;
but they saw nothing. Sent for the 5 Mohawks and Jan Davets acting as
Interpreter, informed them what insults the Dutch of Esopus had from
year to year experienced and suffered from the Indians, and that they
now even this last time, had murdered and carried off our people, when
we had given them no provocation. Whereupon they answered, Come, give
us a piece of duffels; we shall afterwards go with it and see whether
we shall not be able to recover all the prisoners. It was accordingly
resolved by the Heer de Decker and Council of War, that a piece of
duffels should be brought up from the river side and given them; which
being done, they took the piece of duffels, cut it into three parts,
and thus departed with it about 11 o'clock in the forenoon; with them
went Jan Davets with the Squaw and 2 children who had been captured by
us and were released in exchange for the 2 Dutch women and 2 children
whom the Indians had brought back
22d ditto. A scouting party went out, but saw nothing.
23d ditto. (July 1663) A Party went to the river side to bring up
supplies, and three, to cut and draw grain. They experienced no
24th ditto. Sent for all the wagons to make a journey to the river side
to bring up the provisions which had been sent hither by the Executive
government; but, only 4 wagons came. As I required ten, I excused
these; Some refused to work for the Company* [The “Company” refers to
the Dutch West India Company whose organization included the Government
of the New Netherlands]; some gave for answer, if another will cart I
also shall cart; some said, my horses are poor, I cannot cart; others
said, my horses have sore backs, and other such frivolous answers that
I was thus unable, this time, to bring up the Company's stores.
Whereupon it was resolved by the Council of War, that the farmers
should not be furnished with any men for their protection in the
fields; unless they would assist in bringing up the Company's Supplies
from the water side. Nay, further—one Tjerck Claesen de Wit, himself a
magistrate, would turn Lieut. Stilwil's Soldiers out of a small house
they occupied—he said, he had hired it, though he had, notwithstanding,
neither possession of nor procuration for it, I gave him for answer,
that I should remove them on condition that he, as a magistrate, would
have them billetted in other houses as the men could not lie under the
blue sky, and as they had been sent here by the Chief government for
the defence of the Settlers. But he made no answer to this; and so
there are other ringleaders and refractory people in this place.
Meanwhile the convoy which was ready to conduct. the provisions, was
dismist each to its own post until further orders. At noon I went with
a troop of Dutch and Indians to the New Village where the Heer de
Decker himself was; met with no interruption. A party was also out with
the reapers. In the evening Jan Davets and the 5 Mohawks returned from
the Esopus Indians—they brought with them a female prisoner; they
would not at present release any more prisoners, evinced great
fierceness and repeatedly threatened to kill them, both the Mohawks and
Jan Davets—told them they should not release any more prisoners unless
they should secure peace thereby, and that Corlaer and Rentslaer should
come to their fort, and bring goods with them to conclude peace and to
redeem the prisoners; said that they must be within ten days in their
fort to conclude peace; said, that they demanded a truce during that
time. Jan Davets also informed us, that he had seen but 4 prisoners in
the fort, and that the others were scattered far and wide; says, there
are about 30 warriors in the fort, and that the others dwelt without
here and there; they also said they were determined to make a stand in
the fort, whereupon we have resolved to go in search of them on the
25th ditto. The Heer de Decker left to-day for the Manhatans in the
company's yacht, taking with him two of the wounded, and Jan du Parck,
Surgeon, and two soldiers to take care of the sick; two sick Indians
left also; sent along with them a convoy and 9 wagons to bring up the
remainder of the goods. They returned and saw nothing. Also sent of two
detachments with the reapers; they did not remark any thing. Convened
the Council of War and it was unanimously resolved to send out an
expedition against the Esopus Indians, which should start the next day,
if the weather were favorable.
26th ditto. The following troops set out against the Esopus Indians,
having as a Guide a woman who had been prisoner among them, to wit—of
Captain Lieutenant Cregier's Company, 91 men; of Lieutenant Stilwil's,
30 men ; Lieutenant Couwenhoven with 41 Indians; [these Indians were of
Long Island] volunteers from the Manhatans, 8; volunteers from the
Esopus, 35 men, of whom 11 were horsemen, and 7 of the Honble Company's
negroes, with two pieces of cannon and two wagons, the whole party
provided each with one pound of powder and a pound of ball, 2lbs of
hard bread and; a soft loaf, with 2lbs of pork and a Dutch cheese; left
in garrison at Wildwyck 36 soldiers and 25 freemen. Marched out about 4
o'clock in the afternoon, and came in the evening about two great miles
from Wildwyck, where we remained until the moon rose. We then started
anew; but could not march more than a long half hour on account of the
cannon and wagons, which we could not get through the woods at night.
We then bivouacked until day break.
27th ditto. (July 1663) We got on the right road when day dawned and
continued our march. On the way we passed over much stoney land and
hills, and had to tarry at the swampy, long, broken and even frequent
kills (steams) where we halted and must cut trees to make bridges to
pass over, and divers mountains were so steep that we were obliged to
haul the wagons and cannon up and down with ropes. Thus our progress
was slow. When about two miles from the Indian fort, sent forward Capt.
Lieutenant Couwenhoven, Lieutenant Stilwil and Ensign Christiaen
Niessen, with 116 men to surprise it. I followed, meanwhile, with the
remainder of the force, the guns and wagons, but on coming within a
short mile of the fort, found the way so impassable that I was under
the necessity of leaving the cannon, as I could not get it farther. I
left 40 men there and gave them orders to fortify themselves and set
palisades around, which they did, and I followed the preceding troop
with the remainder towards the Indian fort. On arriving there; found
our people in possession of it, as it had been abandoned by the Indians
two days before. Our Indians had caught a Squaw in the cornfield,
whither she was coming to cut maize. Now the evening falling, for it
was about 6 o'clock when we came to the fort, we passed the night
there, having found 3 horses at their fort.
28th ditto. The Council of War assembled at the breaking of the day and
unanimously resolved to go in search of the Indians to the mountain
where the above mentioned female had been a prisoner and to take the.
captured Squaw along. Whereupon Lieutenant Couwenhoven and Lieutenant
Stilwil and Ensign Niessen were detached with 110 men, and remained in
the fort with about 29 men. The above named troops then set forth
towards the mountain and arrived where the Indians had been they had
left that place also. The captured Squaw being asked if she did not
know where the Indians had fled to, said they were on a great, high
mountain, which she pointed out to them, distant about 2 miles, whither
they had fled with the seven prisoners they had with them; where-upon
the officers resolved to go to the other mountain in search of them,
which they afterwards did with their troops, after experiencing vast
difficulty, but found no Indians there. The Squaw being again
questioned whether she did not know where they were ? said they had
moved to another mountain, which she pointed out, about 4 miles from
there, but there was no path thither. Being on the brow of the hill our
people saw 9 Indians coming towards them, whereupon they fell flat,
intending thus to surprise the Indians on their approach, but they did
not succeed, our people being noticed at a distance of about 2 musket
shots. Eight of them ran off in an oblique direction, and the ninth
attempted to run back to the place whence they had come. As our force
was discovered on all sides, and even our Indians said that no savages
could be caught at this time as they were every where fully informed of
us, it was resolved to return to the fort, where they arrived about one
o'clock. After they had taken some rest, I convened the Council of War
to determine what was now best to be done. They unanimously resolved to
cut down their corn and burn it, together with last year's maize, which
they still had in pits in great abundance in their corn-fields and
around their fort. Whereupon I went out of their fort with 50 men to a
distance of a full half mile; there cut down several plantations of
maize, threw into the fire divers pits full of maize and beans,
returned to the fort at sun-down and saw that divers Indians and
horsemen found some pits with plunder in the vicinity of the fort,
which they brought in. Meanwhile I had the whole party called together,
and told them that all the plunder that was or should be found was to
be in common, and was so understood by the Council of War before we
started from our fort. Whereupon one of the horsemen stepped out of the
troop and said to me, What we've found we'll keep and divide among us
horsemen. To which I said, that they should not do that, for they were
under command. Whereupon the horseman, named Jan Hendricksen,
answered—They are under the command of no man but Long Peter, whom
they, forsooth ! called their Cornet, and uttered divers unmannerly
words in presence of all the officers. Upon which I gave him 2 or 3
slaps of a sword, and he seemed as if he would put himself in a posture
against me. But I being close up to his body he could not act as he
wished, and I said to him that I should bring him to an account. This
said Jan Hendricksen, with one Albert Heymans Roose, acted insolently
on the 7th July. Whilst we were examining the two Wappinger Indians, in
the presence of the Schout and Commissaries, in Thomas Chambers' room a
messenger came in and said that two or three boors were without the
door with loaded guns to shoot the Indians when they came forth.
Whereupon I stood up and went to the door—found this Albert Heymans
Roose and Jan Hendricksen at the door with their guns. Asked them what
they were doing there with their guns ? They gave me for answer, We
will shoot the Indians. I said to them, you must not do that. To which
they replied, We will do it though you stand by. I told them in return,
to go home and keep quiet or I should send such disturbers to the
Manhatans. They then retorted, I might do what I pleased, they would
shoot the Savages to the ground, even though they should hang for it;
and so I left them. This Albert coming into the Council told the
Commissaries that one of them should step out. What his intention with
him was I can't say. This by way of memorandum. Meanwhile arrested Jan
29th ditto. (July 1663) Four parties went out again to cut down the
corn and to burn the old maize. About o'clock in the afternoon, Some
Indians made their appearance on a high hill near the fort and called
out to us, that they would come and fight us on the morrow whereupon we
brought the captive Squaw out of the fort to speak to them, and they
called out to her that they should now come and fight the Dutch, for
the Dutch had now come and taken their fort, cut their corn and burnt
all their old maize and that they should die of hunger. I said to them,
the Dutch had gone in search of you to the mountain but ye always ran
away and dare not make a stand. But the Indians would not give any
answer, and so went away.
30th ditto. We, in two large parties, each of 80 men, cut down all the
corn and burnt the old maize which remained in the pits. Returned to
the fort, all together, in the evening, and made preparations to set
out in the morning. Meanwhile the Indians who the day before had called
out that they would come & fight us, did not make their appearance.
We cut down nearly one hundred morgens1 of Maize [About 216 Acres] and
burnt above a hundred pits full of corn and beans.
31st ditto. In the morning at the dawn of day set fire to the fort and
all the houses, and while they were in full blaze marched out in good
order, Capt Lieutenant Couwenhoven forming the van guard, Lieutenant
Stilwil's Company the centre, and I with my company the rear guard. So
arrived in safety at our fort about 9 o'clock in the evening with our
cannon and wagons. Remarked scarcely anything on the way. The road or
course from Wildwyck to the fort of the Esopus Indians lies mostly
south west, about 10 [Dutch] miles from our fort.
1st August. In the morning heard two shots from the Redoubt on the
riverside. Sent off ensign Christiaen Niessen with. 50 men. He found
there the Honble Company's yacht in which the Heer Secretary van Ruyven
had come. Had him escorted to the Village of Wildwyck, and did nothing
more as it was a day of Fasting and Prayer.
2d ditto. Nothing occurred as it rained during the whole day and night.
3d ditto. The Heer Secretary departed on his return to the Manhatans,
accompanied by Lieutenant Couwenhoven and the Indians being 41 in the
whole, who would not remain any longer; also 5 of the Honble Company's
Negroes. Through great intercession and promise of better behavior in
future, the Council of war pardoned Jan Hendricksen the faults
committed by him and he is released from confinement. Meanwhile I had
two parties in the field with the reapers and one in Ambush. They saw
nothing and returned in the evening. I this day sold, by public beat of
drum, the three horses which we had brought with us from the Indians'
4th ditto. (August 1663) A Mohegan Indian came from fort Orange; he had
a pass from Monsieur Montagnie; brought two letters, one to Mr Gysbert
and one to Hendrick Jochems; there was hardly any news in them except
that they were longing to receive some intelligence relative to the
condition of the Esopus. Convened the Council of war and invited
thereto the Commissaries of the village Wildwyck, And made this
Ordinance and read it to the people, both freemen and military, and had
a copy fixed to each Beat or Post. It is, word for word, as follows :—
" ORDINANCE made and enacted by the Captain Lieutenant and the valiant
Council of war at present commanding the troops and .Military in the
Esopus or Wildwyck.
“WHEREAS we learn by daily experience that many, as well military as
freemen, are removing from the Village Wildwyck, without the consent of
the Capt Lieutenant and Commissaries of this Village, Therefore it is
necessary that timely provision be made therefor, so that none may at
any time fall into the hands of the barbarous Indians, our enemies; And
that families every day unnecessarily waste and fire off powder and
ball. Therefore the Captain Lieutenant and valiant Council of war,
wishing to provide for and prevent all inconveniences and mischiefs
which may arise therefrom, have ordered and directed, as they do hereby
order and direct.
“Firstly, That no one, whether military or freeman shall, without the
consent of the Captain Lieutenant, Council of war and Commissaries of
this place, depart from this Village of Wildwyck, either in large or
small bodies, whether to cut grain or for any other business whatsoever
it may be, lest any of them may chance to fall into the hands of the
barbarous Indians, our enemies ; and if any one remove beyond this
village of Wildwyck without consent or proper convoy, whatever the
business or occasion may be, he shall pay a fine of five and twenty
guilders for the first offence; for the second fifty guilders and for
the third offence an arbitrary punishment; And should any one, in
violating and disobeying this order, happen to be captured by the
Indians, our enemies, no expence or trouble shall be incurred for him,
inasmuch as he, by his perverse and stiffnecked course, contrary to
this Ordinance, will have brought down this misfortune on himself.
“If any one unnecessarily & perversely waste or fire off his powder
and ball, be it on the departure or arrival of convoys or otherwise, he
shall, for the first offence, pay a fine of three guilders for each
shot; for the second offence six guilders and for the third offence
suffer arbitrary punishment, unless when desirous to discharge his gun,
being out of order or wet, he shall ask permission therefor from his
superior or inferior officer. And for the better observance and
obedience of this ordinance, the Captain Lieutenant and Council of War
hereby particularly and imperatively command all Superior officers,
Serjeants, and Corporals to pay strict attention that this Ordinance be
observed and respected. Thus done in the village of Wildwyck by the
Captain Lieutenant, Council of War and the proper Commissaries of said
village, on the 4th of August 1663."
Same date a letter is also sent by the Mohegan Indians to Christoffel
Davids at fort Orange requesting him to be pleased to come down to the
Esopus on important business which we should then explain and
communicate to him.
5th ditto. (August 1663) Thomas the Irishman arrived here at the
Redoubt from the Manhatans. Meanwhile nothing was done as it was
Sunday, and no detachments were sent out.
6th ditto. Sent a party of 32 men to lie in ambush, and two detachments
with the reapers. They returned in the evening; perceived nothing.
7th ditto. Three detachments were sent out with the reapers; returned
in the evening without having seen anything.
8th ditto. Sent out Ensign Niessen with a detachment to lie in ambush
behind the New Village which was burnt, and observe the Indians. Also
two parties with the reapers. They came back in the evening without
having noticed anything.
9th ditto. Three detachments were again sent out; two in the field with
the reapers and one in ambush. They returned towards evening having
10th ditto. Sent out two detachments; one in the field with the
reapers, the other in ambush behind the recently burnt village, under
the command of Ensign Niessen. They came in towards evening without
having observed any thing. Some yachts also touched at the Redoubt
bringing letters from the Manhatans which they left at the Redoubt and
then sailed upwards for fort Orange.
11th ditto. Received this morning the letters which the Yachts left at
the Redoubt; had two parties in the field with the reapers; they
returned in the evening without having seen anything.
12th ditto. Sunday. Nothing occured except sending two convoys to the
Redoubt to relieve the men who lay there and to bring up some stores
with Mr. Gysbert's wife coming from fort Orange who brings news that
the Northern Indians had killed some Mohawks and a Mohegan, whereupon
the Mohegans have obtained the consent of the Mohawks to build a fort.
Nothing else occurred here.
13th ditto. Sent out two detachments with the reapers and one to lie in
ambush. They returned in the evening; saw nothing. On the same day is
made & enacted by the Captain Lieutenant and the valiant Council of
War the following Ordinance for the maintenance as far as possible of
better order, and the observance and enforcement of discipline among
the Military, and read the same before the Military and freemen and
affixed it at each post. It is word for word as follows :—
“Ordinance made and enacted by the Captain Lieutenant and the valiant
Council of War commanding the Military in the Esopus and Village of
“WHEREAS some in this Village of Wildwyck who follow the trade of
selling strong drink to the military suffer some of them to get drunk
not only on week days but especially on the Lord's Rest and Sabbath
day, unfitting them for their proper duties, & more especially
creating confusion and disorderly conduct; the Honble Company's
Servants not hesitating to sell, pawn, and pledge their own necessaries
for strong drink to the traders in intoxicating liquors; the traders
also receiving the same; yea, even not hesitating to give them more
credit and trust whether they have any thing to the good or not.
Therefore the Capt. Lieutenant and valiant Council of War desirous to
prevent as much as possible all disorders and mischiefs, have therefore
ordained and directed as they hereby direct and ordain :—
“That none of the military, be his rank whatever it may be, presume to
sell or to pawn for any
strong drink any of the stores advanced to him by the Honble Company on
his monthly wages, for his
needs and support, under a fine of one month's wages.
“No one, whether military or freeman, following the business of selling
strong drink, shall presume to take in pledge or endeavor to embezzle
any property belonging to the military in exchange for strong drink,
under the forfeiture of the tapped drink and to return to the owner
free of cost and charges the received property and pay in addition a
fine of twelve guilders as often as he is discovered so doing.
“All those who follow the trade of selling strong drink are further
warned not to sell nor furnish any strong drink on the Lord's Rest and
Sabbath day much less entertain any clubs, whether before or after the
sermon on pain of forfeiting the strong drink tapped on that occasion,
and in addition a fine of five and twenty guilders as often as they
shall be caught in the act.
“Those who sell strong drink are also further warned they take heed not
to sell any to the military either on credit or on account, be it in
what manner it may be, on pain of not being paid therefor, unless on
order of his superior officer. THUS DONE by the Capt. Lieutenant and
Valiant Council of War in the Village Wildwyck, this 13th August 1663."
14th ditto. Sent out fifty reapers to the burnt village, called the
Great Plot, (now Hurley) and sent with them about thirty wagons and
Ensign Neissen with a convoy of Eighty men; gave him orders to remain
there all night with the reapers and binders, and the major part of the
wagons and forty men per convoy. The remaining forty men returned to
Wildwyck, and said Ensign with about one hundred and twenty men, as
well reapers and binders as convoys, passed the night at the Great Plot
because it was so distant, and they could not make up more than one
sheaf for they could not begin the work as fresh as they wished.
Brought the grain to Wildwyck as soon as it was cut down. Kept six
parties by the way in ambush to protect the said wagons. However
nothing occured on this day.
15th ditto. Brought more grain from the burnt Village wherefore I kept
two parties in ambush and one with the reapers and two on the road for
the protection of the wagons which went through and fro. Returned in
the evening altogether; observed nothing.
16th ditto. Two parties are again sent out to the field with the
reapers; came back in the evening without having seen anything.
17th. Two parties were again sent into the field with the reapers.
Returned in the evening without seeing anything. The Heer Decker
arrived here at the Redoubt from fort Orange ; had him escorted to the
Village Wildwyck, but he did not tarry here long as his Honor was in a
hurry to depart again. Had the said Heer de Decker escorted back to the
river side and then he returned to the Manhatans. Nothing occurred this
day. Gave three Englishmen leave to go to and return from the
Manhatans. They belong to Lieutenant Stilwil's Company.
18th ditto. Had three detachments again in the field with the reapers;
they returned in the evening; saw nothing. The Council of War resolved
and concluded to send a party three miles from Wildwyck to some
plantations of Esopus Indians planted with maize; whereupon Ensign
Niessen was sent thither with fifty-five men. They went forth from
Wildwyck about ten o'clock at night, and had a Dutchman named Jacob
Jansen Stoutenborgh for a guide.
19th ditto. Was this morning with fifty men and sixteen wagons to the
burnt Village to fetch grain ; came back to Wildwyck about eight
o'clock. Did not see anything. About noon Ensign Niessen returned with
his troop from the Indian maize land. Neither saw nor noticed any
Indians. About three o'clock in the afternoon Christoffel Davids came
from the Manhatans in a canoe. Brought with him a letter from the Heer
General, dated 14th August, brought also a letter from Pieter
Couwenhoven who lay with the Sloop in the Danskamer. [Six miles north
of Newburgh, Orange Co.] The letter was dated 17th August, and
addressed to me. Its contents were, That I should be on my guard for he
was advised that the Esopus Indians together with the Manissings and
Wappingers were prepared to attack and surprize our fort in about two
days with four hundred men, and that they also daily threatened him in
an insufferable manner; he daily expected the arrival of the Sachem who
had already been four days gone about the captured Christians to learn
what he should then do and what should be the issue of it. But he had
not received any intelligence in all that time. He also writes—That the
Indians who lay thereabout on the river side made a great uproar every
night, firing guns and, kintekaying2, [The Delaware word, Gent'keh'n,
to dance, seems to be engrafted here into the Dutch language] so that
the woods rang again; and lie hoped to be with me in two days.—His
letter contains divers other circumstances. Christoffel Davids informs
us, that he slept one night with the Indians in their wigwams —that
some Esopus Indians and Sachems were there who had four Christian
captives with them, one of whom, a female captive, had secretly told
him, Davids, that forty Esopus Indians had already been near our fort
to observe the reapers and the other people. Whereupon the Council of
war resolved to send for the Sheriff, who being come, an order was
handed him directing him to warn all the Inhabitants not to go from the
fort into the fields without a suitable escort, as directed in the
preceding Ordinance of the 4th August. Said Christoffel Davids also
informed us,—that the Indians had on shore several bowls and gourds
with brandy, which they obtained daily from the Sloops, as the Indians
had informed him they could get as much as they required and whatever
powder and lead they wanted. Now, we cannot determine what this may
amount to, but this I understand that the woman who is on board the
sloop with Lieutenant Couwenhoven brought four ankers of brandy with
her from the Manhatans, but none of it came ashore here.
20th ditto. (August 1663) Lieutenant Couwenhoven arrived with the yacht
at the Redoubt; brings a Christian woman and boy with him; says he gave
about Eighty guilders for the youth, and promised to give our captive
Squaw for the woman. Left ninety guilders in pledge for her; the
Council of War disapproved of his having promised the Squaw in exchange
as such was not contained in the Director General and Council's
Instruction to him. Says, the Indians promised him to bring in within
two days, all the prisoners they had, and that he should return with
her to them within that time. Says also, that two Mohawks coming from
fort Orange in a canoe passed his yacht in the Wappingers Kill. They
had full four hundred pounds of lead and over three hundred pounds of
powder in the canoe. He would have them on board but they would not; so
they passed by. The Dutch woman, who had been taken prisoner, was
brought to bed of a young daughter on entering the Esopus Kill: Nothing
occurred during the day as it rained almost incessantly, and the
farmers could not go out in the fields to reap or to bring in the grain.
21st ditto. The Council of War resolved to send Lieutenant Couwenhoven
down again with the Sloop. I victualled the yacht and gave him five
Soldiers additional for his defence; also resolved to give him the two
Indians and the Squaw which we had prisoners, but he is not to leave
them out of his hands before we have our prisoners back. Furnished him
also with an Instruction as to how he should act therein. It reads,
word for word as follows:
" INSTRUCTION for Lieutenant Pieter Couwenhoven.
“WHEREAS Lieutenant Couwenhoven, sent by the Honble Director General
&. Council to release the Christians captured by the Esopus
Indians, lay several days near the Wappinger Indians who acted as
mediators in the affair, and as yet could not effect much except
releasing one child and a woman for which woman he promised to exchange
the Squaw who had been captured by us, on condition that they should
then bring all the Christian Captives to the river side and release
them; and also promised the Wappinger Indians to take down with him the
two Indians whom we captured. The Council of War, therefore, resolved
and concluded to surrender. the two Indians & the Squaw, but on
certain conditions and also by express order of the Heer Director
General and Council, according to instruction accompanying the same,
that no prisoners should go, or be released, unless we first had all
our Christians, prisoners, out of their hands.
“Therefore, the said Council of War recommend and order Lieutenant
Couwenhoven not to surrender nor give up any Indian or Squaw unless our
Christian Captives be first released and exchanged and placed in our
hands, but he is at liberty to promise the Indians, if they discharge
all our prisoners and restore them to us, that they shall then again
have and regain their prisoners, either in exchange or in some other
manner as shall then be agreed to and arranged.
“Should Lieutenant Couwenhoven see no probability of obtaining back,
receiving or releasing our captives, and the Indians be obstinately
opposed to the discharge or release thereof he may watch his time and
opportunity to seize as many Esopus Indians as possible, either on land
or by inducing them with fair words to go on board, according as
opportunities shall then offer; or if many Esopus Indians should come
thither with the Christian Captives and refuse to surrender or give
these up, he shall then endeavor to detain them on shore, whether by
means of intoxicating liquors or by any other means he shall at the
time judge most expedient, and then advise us immediately thereof by a
yacht that may come there, in order that we may regulate ourselves
accordingly as much as lies in our power so as to surprize and seize
them. DONE, Wildwyck, the 21st August 1663."
Escorted said Couwenhoven to the Redoubt. on the river's side and he
sailed again to the Wappingers in the yacht. A party was also in the
field with the boors; they returned home without seeing anything.
22nd ditto. Sent out one escort with the reapers and two parties to lie
in ambush, but it commenced raining about noon and they came in. The
rain came down in such torrents that the boors were obliged to take up
the Bridge lest it be carried away as it was three weeks ago. It is to
be feared that considerable grain will be destroyed in the field for
want of reapers, in consequence of the great rain that has fallen, for
a great deal of grain lies under water and the farmers on an average
have not harvested above one fourth part of it. Nothing else occurred
to day, except that the great rain carried away several of the
palisades of the fort.
23d ditto. Sent an Order to the Sheriff and Commissaries and directed
them to have the palisades of the fort replaced. It reads word for word
as follows :—
“The Sheriff and Commissaries of this Village of Wildwyck are hereby
ordered and directed to have replaced and repaired the palisades of
this Fort, which were washed away by the water, and the same is
urgently required. DONE, Wildwyck the 23d August, 1663."
The Answer of the Court of the Village of Wildwyck
The Court of this Village Wildwyck having seen and read this, find that
it cannot be done at present, inasmuch as the grain in the field is
almost ruined, and it is necessary to draw it home as soon as possible
with the aid of all hands. Wildwyck, 23d August, 1663, (was subscribed)
ROELOF SWARTWOUT. Lower stood—By order of the Worshipful Court of the
Village of Wildwyck,
(signed) MATTYS CAPITO Secretary.
Two detachments were out in the field with the reapers; did not remark
24th ditto. (August 1663) Sent out two detachments With the reapers and
one in ambush. They returned in the evening, having seen nothing.
Received a letter at night from Lieutenant Couwenhoven, which he had
sent up from the Wappingers creek by an Indian, a Dutchman and two
captive christian children belonging to the wife of the gunner who was
on board the sloop with said Couwenhoven; and as the Indian told me he
had given the captive Squaw, whom we had entrusted to said Couwenhoven,
in exchange for these two children, without any hope of a general
redemption; and that he had so thoughtlessly and contrary to orders
surrendered this Squaw for the two children on an uncertainty, not
knowing whether he should receive another prisoner or not; now let him
defend himself to the Director General and Council. Said Couwenhoven's
letter was to this effect : That he hopes to get all the prisoners, but
that he should be in want of supplies; for the powder he has is good
for nothing, and the cry among the Indians is all for powder and
brandy; requests me to send him some, as it was for the public good;
that the Sachem had gone with five men into the interior, and had
promised him to return with all the Christian captives; had given him
the Squaw in order to succeed the better for us, and he had a fair
prospect for a good delivery. In case it happened otherwise then he
should acquaint me of it, and so forth, as appears by his letter. It is
Dated the 25th August, but I received it on the 24th August; this
happened through a mistake of his in writing. Domine Blom departed
hence to-day, with his wife, for the Manhatans, had him escorted to the
river side by Ensign Niessen and forty men. Experienced no harm on the
25th ditto. Sent down the Indian and the Dutchman again to the sloop
lying by the Wappingers, with some bread. Also sent a letter to
Lieutenant Couwenhoven which reads as follows: “Good friend, Lieutenant
Couwenhoven. Your letter came to hand, and I have noted its contents.
As regards your surrender of the Squaw before you had in exchange all
our prisoners, in my opinion it is not well done. But you, yourself,
must vindicate that act. In answer to your request for Sewan and
Brandy, I have none, as you well know, and the Council of War does not
consider it prudent to furnish our enemies with powder at this
conjuncture. You promise to do your best for our Christians in
captivity, and to get these out of their hands. Should you not succeed,
you will act according as you have been already instructed and told. I
send you some bread and request you not to go to the Manhatans, but
first come here to take off the sick and wounded. You can see whether
you will not be able to obtain some sewan and brandy from the passing
sloops, for if I had any and should send them to you, they would run
great risk of being plundered on the way by the Indians. DONE, Wildwyck
the 25th August, 1663." Had three parties out; two with the reapers and
one in ambush. They returned in the evening having seen nothing.
26th ditto. Two escorts were down to the river-side to bring up
supplies and some soldiers' wives coming from the Manhatans; a party
lay in ambush. behind the newly burnt village; returned in the evening
without having remarked any thing.
27th ditto. (August 1663) There were two detachments with the reapers
in the field and one in ambush, returned in the evening without meeting
28th ditto. Had two parties again in the field and one in ambush;
returned in the evening having seen nothing.
29th ditto. Two detachments were out again in the field with the
reapers, and one in ambush. Saw nothing. A soldier of Lieut. Stilwil's
Company was wounded by his Sergeant in some dispute respecting orders.
Said soldier was arrested and afterwards examined by the court martial,
and it was found that the Sergeant was as blameworthy as the soldier.
The soldier, who is named Thomas Coeck, is condemned by the court
martial to stand sentry with six muskets for the space of three days,
and during one hour each day.
30th ditto. Lieutenant Couwenhoven returned from the Wappingers at the
Redoubt with the yacht, and arrived in Wildwyck with his people and the
two Wappinger Indians, but released and liberated the Squaw there;
could not obtain any more Christian captives from the Esopus Indians.
The Wappinger Sachem had been with the Esopus Indians at their fort,
(which they were erecting anew,) in order to ascertain if he could not
obtain the release of the Christian captives. But when he had been two
to three days with them in their new fort, to negotiate with them
respecting the prisoners, two Mohawks and one Minqua came there with
Sewan and a long message, which rendered the Esopus Indians so ill
disposed towards the Wappinger Sachem that they caused him to depart.
He then returned without receiving any other Christian Captives. He
came on board of Lieutenant Couwenhoven and told the same to him, and
said Lieutenant reported it to me. Now, I cannot imagine what there is
in it. Convened the Council of War and they resolved and concluded to
attack with one hundred and twenty men the Esopus Indians who reside in
their new fort about four hours farther than their first fort which we
had burnt. We take with us as a guide one of our captured Wappinger
Indians. Meanwhile issued rations to the people, and orders to start on
the expedition this evening or to-morrow morning; but as it began to
rain in the afternoon we did not set out to day. Sent an Order to the
Sheriff, Commissaries, and Superior officers of the Village of
Wildwyck, which reads as follows:—
“WHEREAS another expedition is on foot against our enemies, the Esopus
Indians, the Sheriff, Commissaries and Superior officers of the
Burghery are requested to furnish twenty horse men from the hired men
(Knechts) of this village of Wildwyck to accompany the military in the
attack on the Indians. Done, Wildwyck the 30th August, 1663."
Answer of the Court to this Order.
The Court and Superior officers of this Village of Wildwyck having read
the communication sent them by the Captain Lieutenant and Council of
War have at their request convoked the farmers and read to them the
aforesaid demand, whereunto they gave for answer that they were well
disposed to do their best for the public interest, but find at present
that the horses fatigued from the harvest, are unfit to be rode by men.
The Court having heard this answer, hereby request the Captain
Lieutenant and Council of War, if it can be possibly done without
prejudice to the public Service, that the expedition be postponed for
six or seven days until the harvest be completed as the grain yet in
the field is already injured. DONE, Wildwyck, this 30th August, 1663,
(was subscribed) ROELOF SWARTWOUT. (Lower Stood) By Order of the
Sheriff, Commissaries and Superior officers of the Burghery in Wildwyck
(signed) MATTHEUS CAPITO, Secretary.
" Nothing else occurred to-day.
31st ditto. It rained somewhat all this clay, therefore the expedition
must rest for the present; sent an escort to the river side and
victualled the people at the Redoubt and Sloop. Asked the Sheriff and
Commissaries, verbally, whether they could not get some horses to
accompany us in the attack so that we may be able to place the wounded
on them if we happen to have any. After great trouble they obtained six
horses from a few, but spiteful and insulting words from many. One
said, Let those furnish horses who commenced the war. Another said,
I'll give 'em the Devil if they want any thing they will have to take
it by force. The third said, I must first have my horse valued and have
security for it; and so forth with much other foul and unbecoming
language, not to be repeated.
1st September. Thomas the Irishman and Claesje Hoorn arrived with their
yachts at the hill from the Manhatans; sent an escort. to the river
side; intended, to set forth to day but the arrival of the yachts and
the escort to the river side prevented this, and the weather was so
lowering and threatened rain so much that we concluded to start next
night towards the break of day; but as it rained the whole night we
could not set out. Nothing else occurred to day. A party was out in the
field with the farmers, but nothing happened.
2d ditto. Sunday. The weather continued lowering, and heavy rain fell.
In the afternoon very heavy rain fell again so that we could not stir
out. Nothing occurred during the entire day.
3d ditto. About one o'clock in the afternoon we started from fort
Wildwyck, having of my company two and twenty men; of Lieutenant
Stilwil's company, four and twenty men, and seven freemen, with two of
the Honble Company's Negroes. We took as guide the young Wappinger
Indian, and Christoffel Davids as Indian interpreter, and promised the
Indian his freedom with a cloth coat, on condition that he brought us
truly to the Esopus Indians. We got eight horses with very great
difficulty from the farmers, as they were so very unwilling and could
not be brought to give us any horses, except Thomas Chambers, who
without any solicitation, presented me with two for the expedition.
Several of the others, who would not give any, used much offensive
language to the Sheriff and to the company's officers, saying “They
will have horses; they may see if they can get them." Marched that
afternoon about three miles from our fort to the creek which runs past
the Redoubt; lay there that night, during which we had great rain.
4th ditto. Found such high water and swift current in the Kill that it
was impossible to ford it; sent six men immediately on horseback to our
fort Wildwyck to fetch rope and axes to make a raft or some other
convenience to cross the creek; they returned to us about ten o'clock;
brought three axes and rope. Passed the rope over the stream in order
to hold fast to it so that the people may not be swept far down the
creek. Crossed over with all the men about two o'clock in the afternoon
and marched about four miles further on, where we bivouacked during the
night. Considerable rain fell this afternoon.
5th ditto. Set out again at day break, and about noon came to their
first maize field where we discovered two Squaws and a Dutch woman; who
had come that morning from their new fort to get corn. But as the creek
lay between us and the corn-field, though we would fain have the women
it was impossible to ford the stream without being seen and then
discovered. We therefore, adopted the resolution to avoid the cornfield
and the road, and turned in through the woods so as not to be seen.
Arrived about two o'clock in the afternoon within sight of their fort,
which we discovered situate on a lofty plain. Divided our force in
two—Lieutenant Couwenhoven and I led the right wing, and Lieutenant
Stilwil and Ensign Niessen the left wing. Proceeded in this disposition
along the hill so as not to be seen and in order to come right under
the fort; but as it was somewhat level on the left side of the fort and
the soldiers were seen by a Squaw, who was piling wood there and who
sent forth a terrible scream which was heard by the Indians who were
standing and working near the fort, we instantly fell upon them. The
Indians rushed forthwith through the fort towards their houses, which
stood about a stone's throw from the fort, in order to secure their
arms, and thus hastily picked up a few guns and bows and arrows, but we
were so hot at their heels that they were forced to leave many of them
behind. We kept up a sharp fire on them and pursued them so closely
that they leaped into the creek which ran in front of the lower part of
their maize land. On reaching the opposite side of the Kill, they
courageously returned our fire, which we sent back, so that we were
obliged to send a party across to dislodge them. In this attack, the
Indians lost their Chief, named Papequanaehen, fourteen other warriors,
four women and three children, whom we saw lying both on this and on
the other side of the creek but probably many more were wounded, when
rushing from the fort to the houses, when we did give them a brave
charge. On our side three were killed and six wounded and we have
recovered three and twenty Christian prisoners out of their hands. We
have also taken thirteen of them prisoners, both men and women, besides
an old man who accompanied us about half an hour but would not go
farther. We took him aside and gave him his last meal. A Captive Indian
Child died on the way, so that there remained eleven of them still our
prisoners. The enemy being conquered, we reviewed our men; found we had
one wounded more than we had horses. Convened the Council of War;
submitted to them what was now best for us to do relative to cutting
down the maize. The Council of war decided that we could indeed cut it
down, but were any more of our men wounded, how could they be, removed
having already one more than we had horses, and this one must be borne,
with great trouble; on a litter by two. Resolved to let the maize stand
for the present; plundered the houses wherein was considerable booty,
such as bear skins, deer skins, notassen, blankets, elk hides, besides
several other smaller articles many of which we were obliged to leave
behind that we could not bring along with us, for we could well fill a
sloop. We destroyed as much as we could; broke the kettles into pieces;
got also twenty four or five guns, more than the half of which we
smashed and threw the barrels here and there in the stream, hacking and
breaking in pieces as many as we could. Found, also, several horns and
bags of powder, in all about twenty pounds; got also thirty one belts
and some strings of wampum; took the best of the booty along and
resolved to set off. Placed the wounded on the horses and had one
carried in a blanket on poles by two soldiers in turns. Set out thus in
good order on our return and marched that day full two miles from the
fort. The fort was a perfect square with one row of palisades set all
round being about fifteen feet above, and three feet under ground. They
had already completed two angles of stout palisades, all of them almost
as thick as a man's body, having two rows of portholes, one above the
other; and they were busy at the third angle. These angles were
constructed so solid and strong as not to be excelled by Christians.
The fort was not so large as the one we had already burnt. The
Christian prisoners informed us that they were removed every night into
the woods, each night to a different place, through fear of the Dutch,
and brought back in the morning; but on the day before we attacked
them, a Mohawk visited them, who slept with them during the night. When
they would convey the Christian Captives again into the woods, the
Mohawk said to the Esopus Indians—What! do you carry the Christian
prisoners every night into the woods? To which they answered—yes.
Whereupon the Mohawk said, Let them remain at liberty here for you live
so far in the woods that the Dutch will not come hither, for they
cannot come so far without being discovered before they reach you.
Wherefore they kept the prisoners by them that night. The Mohawk
departed in the morning for the Manessings and left a new blanket and
two pieces of cloth which fell to us also as booty; and we came just
that day and fell on them so that a portion of them is entirely
annihilated. Wherefore praise and thanks he given to God Almighty. The
course lies about South South West to the Indians new fort which is
distant about 12 miles. [This line leads to about Bloominburg, in the
town of Mamakating Sullivan Co. in the vicinity of which village it is
presumed the above battle was fought]. The way is somewhat stoney and
hilly, but the road for the greater part is good. After leaving their
fort we marched that day two miles where we passed the night. Perceived
the Indians on the road.
6th ditto. (September 1663) Early in the morning we started anew; were
obliged to cross a rapid, stoney creek, and came this day just beyond
the Esopus Kill, which runs by the Redoubt, where we remained this
night, and there died the Indian child, which we threw into the creek.
Saw scarcely any Indians that day on the road.
7th ditto. Started again and arrived about noon at Wildwyck; did not
remark any thing by the way.
8th An escort attended the reapers in the field; returned in the
evening without having seen any thing. Christoffels Davids departed.
9th ditto. Sunday. Lieutenant Stilwil and Lieutenant Couwenhoven left
for the Manhatans with the sloop; sent with them seven wounded and some
sick, together with seventeen of Lieutenant Stilwil's men and twelve of
my company; had them escorted to the river side. Nothing else occurred
10th ditto. Two detachments were out with the reapers and those driving
the team. Nothing occurred. They returned about three o'clock in the
afternoon; as it commenced raining hard and they saw nothing.
11th ditto. Nothing new; it rained the entire day.
12th ditto. Two yachts arrived at the Redoubt from Fort Orange; had
Reyntje Pietersen and Hans Carolussen escorted up; detached a party in
Ambush and one in the field with those pulling Hemp, but nothing
13th ditto. Nothing occurred as it rained the whole day.
14th ditto. Sent an escort to the Redoubt by the river side. Nothing
else transpired, as it rained again nearly the entire day.
15th ditto. Maet Seeu arrived at the Redoubt with his boat and eight
soldiers and some letters from the Heeren Councillors, dated 13th
September. Had him conducted up to the village of Wildwyck. An
ordinance is enacted by the Council of War; it reads as follows:
" ORDINANCE made and enacted by the Captain Lieutenant and valiant
Council of War Commanding the Military troops at Wildwyck in the
Esopus. “Whereas it is found by daily experience that several of the
military do, without permission of the Serjeant or Corporal, leave
their posts or stations either to work with the farmers or on some
other pretence, Wherefore the Captain Lieutenant and valiant Council of
War being desirous to provide therefor, have ordered and directed, as
they do hereby order and direct—
" That no one shall presume to quit his post or station without
permission of the Segeant or
Corporal in command, under the penalty of twenty stivers for the first
offence, 40 stivers for the second, and arbitrary punishment for the
“ No person shall presume to take or steal another's gun, powder or
lead in any manner whatsoever, on pain of corporal punishment,
according to the gravity of the case.
" Neither shall any person, be he who he may, commence or begin any
quarrel on guard, much
less come drunk or to drink there, under a penalty of twenty stivers
for each offence.
“Every one shall hold himself in readiness with his gun, duly provided
with powder and ball, to appear immediately, or on the first command of
the superior or inferior officer, wherever lie may be required, then to
await further orders, and whoever acts contrary or disobeys herein
shall be arbitrarily punished according to his deserts, pursuant to the
sentence of the Court Martial.
“No one shall go from one guard or post to another without taking with
him his proper hand and side arms, so that he may be immediately
prepared to defend himself in case of alarm, under a penalty of twenty
stivers for each offence, and as often as he shall be found disobeying
THUS DONE by the Capt Lieutenant and valiant Council of War, in
Wildwyck, this 15 September 1663.
Nothing else occurred, inasmuch as it was again rainy weather.
16th ditto. Sunday. Nothing occurred and no detachment was sent out.
17th ditto. Maet Seeu left again with his boat; took with him two sick,
Peter Andriessen and Jan Coppenou and two horses for Monsieur Verlet
and sundry empty barrels for the Honble Company; had him escorted to
the Redoubt by 32 men. Thomas the Irishman arrived to day, at the
Redoubt and a small straw cabin in which a soldier resided was burnt,
but nothing can be ascertained as to how the fire originated. Meanwhile
the Soldier lost all his property. Nothing else occurred this day.
18th ditto. Presented the following request to the Magistrates of this
village of Wildwyck :—
“Whereas the Heer Director General and the Heeren Councillors have
written to us here that it is their intention to send hither, by the
first opportunity, additional Soldiers and a party of Marseping
Savages, [These were Queens Co. Indians. Thompson calls them
Marsepeagues, and says their principal settlement was at Fort Neck] to
seek out and subdue as much as possible the Esopus Indians, our enemy,
the Captain Lieutenant and Council of War, therefore, request the
Sheriff and Commissaries of this village of Wildwyck to be pleased to
allot two or three houses in this village to lodge, provisionally, the
aforesaid force whenever it shall arrive. This doing, our friendship
shall follow. DONE, Wildwyck, 18th Septr 1663." Answer of the Court as
follows:— “The W. Court having looked around at the request of the
Capt. Lieutenant and Council of War for proper lodgings for the coming
forces, have induced Pieter Jacobsen to give his mill for 40 to 50
Soldiers, and the W. Court will do its best to find out quarters for
the Savages DONE, Wildwyck, this 18th September 1663. (was subscribed)
ROELOF SWARTWOUT. (Lower stood) By order of the W. Court in Wildwyck
aforesaid. MATTHEUS CAPITO, Secretary. Two detachments were out, to
day, with the reapers in the field and at the Great Plot, and 20 men in
ambush. Returned in the evening; saw nothing.
19th ditto. Thomas the Irishman sailed for the Manhatans; had him
escorted. Two detachments were out in the field with the reapers, but
20th ditto. Two detachments were out at the Great Plot by Tjerck's to
cut oats and to plough; they returned in the evening having seen
21st ditto. Two detachments went out again; one with the ploughers, the
other with those drawing home the oats, but they did not see any thing.
22d ditto. Another detachment was out in the field with the ploughmen;
saw nothing. Sent a party about midnight along the Kill where some
maize lay; distant South from Wildwyck about 2 hours' march; but on
arriving there found only a small patch of maize, as it had all been
plucked by some straggling Indians or bears. Our people took away the
remainder, but 'twas of little value. The Indian prisoners whom we hold
had first informed us, to day, that a small spot of corn had been
planted there principally to supply food to stragglers who went to and
fro to injure the Christians. Should they come again they'll not find
23d ditto. (September 1663) Sunday. Nothing particular. Towards evening
sent a convoy to the river side to bring up bread for the garrison.
About eleven o'clock that night sent out a party to the Sager's little
kill in an easterly1 direction from our village of Wildwyck about three
miles from our fort, having been informed that there was some maize
there, to see if they could not remove it thence, either by land or
24th ditto. Monday. The party that was sent out in the night returned
home about two o'clock in the afternoon; they were at Sager's Killetie,
on the Indians' maize plantation, but saw no Indians nor anything to
indicate that they had been there. for a long time, for the maize had
not been hoed, (aangehoocht) and could not come to its full growth, but
had been much injured by the wild beasts ; neither will any of it reach
perfection, except one plantation which was good, having been hoed by
the Indians. 'Twas, however, much injured by the wild beasts; each of
our people brought a load of it home on his back, and left some more
standing, which we will when convenient bring hither. They also say
that it is beautiful maize land, suitable for a number of bouweries and
for the immediate reception of the plough. Had an escort in the field
to bring in the oats and buckwheat, and sent one to the Redoubt, as
Domine Blom had arrived in the Spaniard's yacht, and some supplies had
also been sent from the Manhatans by the Heeren Councillors for the
troops in the Esopus. Otherwise, nothing particular occurred to-day.
25th ditto. Had an escort in the field with the ploughmen, and sent one
to the river side to fetch up supplies or provisions. A soldier named
Jurien Jansen fell out of a canoe at the Redoubt and was drowned; he
was reaching for a squirrel and the canoe thus upset and he was
drowned. Nothing else occurred to-day except sending some horses and
wagons to fort Orange which were required by the owners.
26th ditto. Lieutenant Couwenhoven arrived at the Redoubt and Wildwyck
with some Marseping Savages. Sent a detachment to the water side to
fetch up some supplies. Inasmuch as Lieutenant Couwenhoven has arrived
at Wildwyck, and the gunner's wife has again brought a quantity of
strong drink along, which she retails as well to Indians as to
Christians, without making any exception as to habitual drunkards, and
furnishes them with so much that they cannot distinguish even the door
of the house, and then, coming out, fight with and strike the Indians.
Therefore, desirous to prevent all mischiefs which might arise from
strong drink, the rather as an expedition is again about to set out,
according to letters from the Supreme Council, and in order to have
sober and proper men to march at the first command of the officers, the
Capt Lieutenant and valiant Council of War have, for the present, sent
an order to the Sheriff of this Village, which reads as follows— “The
Capt Lieutenant and valiant Council of War having orders from the
Supreme government to get up another expedition, and the entire
military, and the Natives our friends, the Marseping Indians, being
here also holding themselves in readiness to set out at the first
command of the officers. The Capt Lieutenant and valiant Council of War
do therefore hereby authorize and order Sheriff Swartwout of this
village to notify and forbid the tappers or retailers of strong drink
who follow the profession of selling liquor in this village, that they
do not under present circumstances sell strong drink to any one, be he
Christian or Indian, under the forfeiture of the intoxicating liquor
that may be found in his house. Done, Wildwyck, 26th September, 1663."
Meanwhile, nothing else occurred to-day.
27th ditto. (September 1663) An escort was in the field with the
ploughmen and one to the river side to fetch up provisions. Nothing
28th ditto. The Council of War engaged Derrick Smith to remain at the
Redoubt with his yacht until. we return with the troops from the
expedition, in order to carry back the forces and Marseping Indians,
and agreed with said Smith that he shall have in Seawan eight guilders
light money per day. A detachment was out in the field with the
ploughmen; 10 to 13 of our Indians were out in the bush shooting. They
returned in the evening; say that they have discovered signs of where
the Indians are gone to. Nothing else occurred to day.
29th ditto. Convened the Council of war and resolved and concluded to
set out on another expedition against the Esopus Indians next Monday
being the 1st of October, and each man shall be furnished with three
pounds of biscuit, one pound of powder and one pound of ball for the
expedition. An order is also given to the Sheriff and Commissaries as
follows—"Whereas by orders from the Director General and Council of New
Netherland an expedition is about to set out against the Esopus
Indians, our enemies and sixteen, horses are required to accompany and
to be used by said expedition, the Capt. Lieutenant and Valiant
[Council of War,] therefore request the Sheriff and Commissaries of
this Village of Wildwyck to supply said horses from the inhabitants by
the first of October proximo, being next Monday. Done, Wildwyck the
29th September 1663." A detachment was in the field with the ploughmen,
and one to the river side; Saw nothing.
30th September, Sunday afternoon, caused powder and ball to be
distributed to the soldiers and Indians; one pound powder, one pound
lead each, with three pounds biscuit for this expedition. Nothing else
happened to day.
1st October being Monday, we marched from Wildwyck with these following
troops; of the Military 102 men; of the Marseping Indians 16 men; of
the freemen 6; with 14 horses obtained from the farmers of Wildwyck for
the use of the expedition so as to be able to accommodate the wounded,
should we have any. Marched with these troops about 9 hours and arrived
in the evening about 7 miles from Wildwyck where we passed the night.
Experienced scarcely any trouble through the day; had considerable rain
in the night.
2nd ditto. Started again with our troops and about two o'clock in the
afternoon came to the fort of the Esopus Indians where we had attacked
them on the 5th September and there found five large pits into which
they had cast their dead. The wolves had rooted up and devoured some of
them. Lower down on the Kill were four other pits full of dead Indians
and we found, further on, three Indians with a Squaw and a Child that
lay unburied and almost wholly devoured by the ravens and the wolves.
Sent out, immediately a party of Dutch men and Indians four miles
beyond the fort in a South westerly direction where our guide presumed
some Esopus Indians would be, but on coming there discovered nothing
but some wigwams which had. been a long time abandoned by the Indians.
Meanwhile I had been over the Kill with a party of men and pulled off
the corn and threw it into the Kill. The troops returned in the evening
without having seen any Indians. About two miles from the fort
perceived the trail of two Indians who had gone across the mountain;
supposed to be strange Indians; The trail was a day old.
3d ditto. Early in the morning despatched a party of soldiers and
Indians into the woods to see if they could not find any Indians; sent
a detachment again over the Kill to pull up the maize and throw it into
the Kill. In the afternoon sent two other detachments into the corn
fields to throw the maize into the creek, as the corn which stood about
the fort was all thrown into the Kill by the evening. After sundown our
party returned, without having captured or discovered any thing.
4th ditto. We pulled up the Indian fort and threw the palisades, one on
the other, in sundry heaps and set them on fire, together with the
wigwams which stood around the fort, and thus the fort and houses were
destroyed and burnt. About 10 o'clock we marched thence down along the
creek where lay divers maize plantations, which we also destroyed and
cast the corn into the creek. Several large Wigwams stood also there
which we burnt. Now, having destroyed every thing, we marched that day,
on our return, about four miles further, where we remained with the
troops that night by a small creek, the rain falling the entire time.
Two Hackinsack Indians who had come up with the Marsepings staid behind
at the fort. They told the Chief that they should return home from
thence, as they could reach Hackinsack as soon as Esopus; but the Chief
did not mention it to us until we had marched back some two miles.
These two Indians had, each, a gun from the Esopus, which they took
away with them.
5th ditto. (October 1663) Still raining incessantly; but we again
resumed our homeward march, to Wildwyck. This night one of the farmers'
horses strayed away; searched for it this morning every where, but
could not find it. Meanwhile continued our march, and arrived in the
evening at Wildwyck. Saw nothing on the road. The course from Wildwyck
to the Indians' burnt fort lies mostly South Southwest across several
large creeks; some of which are breast-high, some not so deep. The way
is very bad and hilly; in some places is very fine land.
6th ditto. Had two escorts to the river side; nothing else occurred
7th ditto. Sunday. At break of day sent out. forty soldiers with twenty
Indians to the Sagers Killetje, lying easterly (Oostwaerts) from
Wildwyck, where there were two fields planted with maize, for the
purpose of destroying this and throwing it into the creek; they
returned in the evening each with a load of maize having thrown the
remainder into the creek. About noon, to day, a girl was brought up
from the Redoubt who, the day before had arrived on the opposite bank
there and was immediately conveyed across [the stream]. When the girl
came to Wildwyck she was forthwith asked, where she came from? Said,
she had escaped from an Indian who had taken her prisoner, and who
resided in the mountain on the other side of the creek about three
miles from Wildwyck where he had a hut and a small patch of corn which
he had pulled and had been there about three weeks to remove the corn.
The Council of War forthwith resolved to send thither forty men to try
and catch him, whereupon Ensign Niessen with 36 soldiers and Lieutenant
Couwenhoven with 5 Indians were ordered out. They marched from Wildwyck
about noon and crossed over at the Redoubt. They reached the hut about
sunset which, having completely surrounded, they surprized, but found
it empty. The Indian had abandoned it before their arrival. They found
a lot of corn near the put, and another lot at the kill, part of which
they burned and brought a part here. Remained in the hut during the
night and watched there.
8th ditto. About ten o'clock the troops returned to Wildwyck. Convened
the Council of War and resolved and concluded to send off Lieutenant
Couwenhoven and the Marseping Indians and about forty of our soldiers
to the Manhatans on the morrow being the ninth of October. The Council
of War also resolved to send down all the Indian prisoners likewise to
the Manhatans being eleven Esopus Indians, big and little and one
Wappinger, making twelve in all, as there is, no probability of their
being redeemed here, none of the Esopus Indians coming here to speak to
or enquire after them. Nothing else occurred to day.
9th ditto. Lieutenant Couwenhoven departed in Dirick Smith's yacht,
took with him all the Marseping Indians and 40 of the military. Sent no
escort to the river side with them. Nothing else happened. The horse
which we left on the expedition returned back to Wildwyck to day.
10th ditto. A detachment was out in the field with the ploughmen—they
returned about noon as it began to rain hard. Louis, the Waloon, went
to day to fetch his oxen which had gone back of Juriaen Westphaelen’s
land. As he was about to drive home the oxen, three Indians, who lay in
the bush and intended to seize him, leaped forth. When one of these
shot at him with an arrow but only slightly wounded him, Louis, having
a piece of a palisade in his hand, struck the Indian on the breast with
it so that he staggered back, and Louis escaped through the kill, and
came thence and brought the news into the fort, whereupon two
detachments were instantly despatched to attack them, but they had
taken to flight and retreated into the woods. And although a party
searched for them an hour they could not discover them; they thereupon
returned to Wildwyck. No other harm was done by the three Indians. This
evening the Company's yacht arrived at the Redoubt. Nothing else
occurred to day.
11th ditto. (October 1663) Two detachments were in the field with the
ploughmen and one in ambush; returned in the evening without seeing any
12th ditto. Two parties were again in the field with the ploughmen.
About noon, to day, Reyntje Pieters came from fort Orange with his
yacht in which also arrived Thomas Chambers and Evert Pels [an ancestor
of ours]. Brought news that Peter the Fleming, residing on the East
shore opposite Bethlehem had been warned by a Mohawk to depart if he
wish not to be killed, for he said that all the Indians on the East
side of fort Orange river had assembled and were to come in five days
to attack fort Orange. This Indian had given him this warning, he being
his great Nytap1 and the Mahicanders and the Cattskill Indians had all
abandoned their maize plantations; yea, had offered to sell divers
maize plantations to the Dutch for a piece of cloth. Peter the Fleming
brought this news to Fort Orange on Monday, being the 7th of October,
the day before he left fort Orange with the yacht. Now, the result
hereof time will determine. I also received a letter from Cattskill,
from Elbert Herbertsen which I enclose. to your Honors. It is dated
26th September. In like manner Capt Thomas Chambers informs me that
many of the Dutch of Fort Orange are removing in canoes the corn from
the Indians' plantations which had been abandoned by the Indians. This
Mohawk had also said that five Indian Nations had assembled together;
namely the Mahicanders, the Catskills, the Wappingers, those of Esopus
besides another tribe of Indians that dwell half way between Fort
Orange and Hartford. Now, time will tell what there is herein. He said
their place of meeting was on the east side of the fort Orange river,
about three miles inland from Claverack, and that they were about five
hundred strong. Sent two escorts to the river side to fetch up the
Honble Company's goods. They returned to Wildwyck together with the
detachments that had been out in the field with the ploughmen. Saw
13 ditto. The Company's yacht returned to the Manhatans; the same day
two yachts also arrived from the Manhatans and sailed for fort Orange,
after having touched at the Redoubt. A detachment was out in the field
with the plough men and one in ambush, and I sent an escort to the
river side. The beer sent up by the Heer General was likewise
distributed, to day, to the soldiers. Nothing else occurred.
14th ditto; Sunday—nothing to note except that I sent a convoy in the
evening to the river side to drive up some cattle which had arrived
from Fort Orange.
15 ditto. Communicated another Order to the W. Court relative to the
non repairs of the fortress of Wildwyck. It is verbally as follows:
“WHEREAS an Acte dated 23d August has been communicated to the Schout
&, Commissaries of this Village Wildwyck respecting the repair of
this fortress of Wildwyck and nothing resulted therefrom to this date,
the Capt. Lieutenant and Council of War do, therefore, again recommend
and order the W. Court of this Village of Wildwyck to cause the said
fortress to be properly secured by the Commonalty of this Village
against all unexpected attacks as necessity requires it, and the fort
lies open at divers points as the W. Court can itself see in what state
it at present is: Wherefore the W. Court of this Village of Wildwyck is
again condescendingly requested to be pleased to give orders to repair
the above mentioned fort in a proper manner, and in default thereof the
Capt. Lieutenant and Council of War do hereby protest, should any
attack be made by our enemies on this fortress, that they hold
themselves guiltless thereof, this fortress being at present incapable
of defence—and there appears no disposition as yet to repair
it—although the said Capt. Lieutenant and Council of War will perform
their duty with the force entrusted to them by the Supreme Government
and shall constantly hold themselves in readiness, both in garrison and
in the field, to maintain this place for the public interest, trusting
that the W. Court will please to give order herein to their Commonalty
for the proper reparation thereof, which awaiting &c. Done,
Wildwyck 15th 8ber 1663.”
Two convoys were out in the field with the ploughmen and one in ambush;
saw nothing during the day. Hans the Norman arrived at the Redoubt with
his yacht from fort Orange; reports that full seven thousand Indians
had assembled at Claverack, on the east side, about three miles inland,
but he knows not with what intent. Now what this can mean, whether it
be true or not, we cannot determine, but in my opinion it looks
somewhat like fiction. Meanwhile, nothing else occurred.
16th ditto. (October 1663) Two detachments were again in the field with
the ploughmen, and an escort was also down to the river side. They
returned and nothing else happened.
17th ditto. Two detachments were again abroad with the ploughmen, and
likewise one in ambush and had another as an escort to the river side.
Nothing occurred to-day. An Ordinance was, this day, drawn up by the
Council of War for the Soldiers at the Redoubt and posted there. It
reads as follows
“ORDINANCE made by the Capt. Lieutenant and Valiant Council of War
commanding the military troops at Wildwyck, and dependancies, for the
military stationed at present at the Redoubt.
"WHEREAS by daily experience we learn that some remove from the Redoubt
to the village of Wildwyck without the consent or order of the Capt.
Lieutenant or other officers, the Capt. Lieutenant and Valiant Council
of War, therefore, wishing to prevent all irregularities and
infractions of military discipline herein order and direct the officer
and the military under his command stationed at the Redoubt, not to
remove himself, from the Redoubt, much less to send any of his command
hither to the Village of Wildwyck without proper consent of the Capt.
Lieutenant or other Commander who represents him for the time, nor
without being accompanied by a, proper escort on pain of being
arbitrarily punished by Court Martial. THUS done by the Capt.
Lieutenant and Valiant Council of war in the fortress Wildwyck the 17th
18th ditto. Received an answer from the Court of this village to the
Order sent to them the 15th October, respecting the non-repair of the
fortress Wildwyck. It reads as follows:
“The W. Court having read the order dated the 15th 8ber sent hither by
the Capt Lieutenant to the W: Court, which is therein requested to
repair and renew the palisades of this Village of Wildwyck, so that the
same may be in a state of defence, the W. Court finds that necessity
requires that. this village be properly secured and protected by
setting up of good palisades; the W. Court, therefore, orders and
directs that each farmer shall duely set up and repair the old, with
new, palisades in front of his lot; and the others, being inhabitants
or Burghers occupying 34 lots in this village, shall be obliged
properly to repair and set up new palisades in place of the old, from
the Water gate along the curtains unto the lot of Arent Pietersen Tack,
the new palisades being at least two feet in circumference, but the
thicker the better, and 13 feet in length, according to the
circumstances of the case to be determined by the W. Court. This
renewal and setting up shall commence next Monday, being the 22d
October. Wherefore every inhabitant is hereby notified to appear at 7
o'clock on the day aforesaid, at the gate near Hendrick Jochemsen's,
there, as his name is called, to proceed to work aforesaid, and to
continue at it until the same shall be completed, on pain, in case of
neglect or unwillingness, of paying for the first offence three
guilders; for the second offence double as much, and so on adding three
guilders. THUS DONE at the Court of the Sheriff and Commissaries of
this village Wildwyck, this 16th October, 1663, (Under written) By
order of the Sheriff and Commissaries aforesaid. (Signed) MATTHEUS
Two detachments were out in the field to-day with the ploughmen, and
one at the Redoubt by the river side. Nothing else was done to-day.
19th ditto. (October 1663) Two detachments were out again with the
ploughmen, and one to the river side; a party was, also, in ambush to
make some discovery; but did not see any thing.
20th ditto. Three detachments were out in the field again with the
ploughmen, and one in ambush, but did not remark any thing. An escort
was also down to the river side at the Redoubt.
21st ditto. Sunday; nothing occurred.
22d ditto. Three detachments were again out with the ploughmen, and one
in ambush as scouting. An escort was likewise sent down to the river
side; they did not see any thing.
23d ditto. Three detachments were again out with the ploughmen, but saw
24th ditto. Two parties were again out in the field with the ploughmen,
and I was until evening with a party in ambush, but did not perceive
25th ditto. Two escorts were again in the field with the ploughmen, and
one to the river side. Nothing happened.
26th ditto. An escort was in the woods with those cutting palisades,
and another party was in ambush, but saw nothing.
27th ditto. An escort was in the field with the ploughmen, and one in
ambush, and another to the river side. Nothing else was done.
28th ditto. Sunday. Nothing occurred.
29th ditto. Two parties were out; one with the wood cutters, the other
in ambush—but saw nothing.
30th ditto. A detachment was in the woods with those cutting palisades,
and a party to the river side, and also a troop in the woods scouting;
did not see any thing.
31st ditto. Gerrit Abel was tried before the Valiant Court Martial for
his offence committed on the 29TH October and is sentenced by the Court
" WHEREAS Gerret Abel being in command at the Redoubt, hath in
contravention to the ordinance dated 17th 8ber enacted by the Valiant
Council of War and posted at the Redoubt, proceeded to the village of
Wildwyck on last Monday the 29th October, without leave, escort or any
necessary business, but merely to get drunk, as actually happened,
which being notified to the Capt Lieutenant, he caused him to be placed
under arrest, and to be tried this day, 31st October, before the
Valiant Court Martial and prosecuted for this his committed offence,
for which the Capt Lieutenant demands the Valiant Council of War duly
to punish the accused Gerret Abel.
“The accused gave as an excuse for his coming here to Wildwyck that he
wanted to get a skepel of wheat ground, and as it could not be
immediately ground for him, he was to a friend's with whom he drank
half a pint. And the accused having heard the charge aforesaid,
acknowledges to have transgressed the ordinance above mentioned, and
supplicates herein, not justice, but mercy.
“The Valiant Council of War having maturely considered this matter;
that a soldier and more especially one who is in command over others
hath deserved punishment for his committed offence according to the
complaint and confession; seeing that the prisoner's excuse hath no
foundation, sentence the accused Gerret Abel, to be dismissed from his
post of Cadet (Adelborst) and to be reduced to the ranks
(Schildergastendienst te doen) at 8fl. per month, and to remain at the
Redoubt until further orders, he Gerret Abel being unfit to perform the
duty of Cadet. Done at Wildwyck the 31st October 1663. (Subscribed)
MARTEN CREGIER, CHRISTIAEN NIESSEN, THOMAS CHAMBERS, EVERT WILLEM
MUNNICK, JAN PEERSEN, JONAS RANTSON."
Same day, a detachment was out in the woods with the wood cutters and
one in ambush scouting, but they did not see any thing.
November the 1st. (1663) A party was in ambush, and a detachment with
the wood cutters; saw nothing.
2nd ditto. A detachment was out with the wood cutters and another in
ambush to scout.
3d ditto. A detachment was down at the river side to carry rations to
the people at the Redoubt, and another party was at the Great Plot, but
did not notice any thing.
4th ditto. Sunday. Nothing done.
5th ditto. An escort was down to the river side to bring up some
supplies and people that had arrived from the Manhatans in Lucassen's
yacht, they being freemen belonging to Wildwyck. A party was also out
in the bush with the wood cutters. Nothing else happened.
6th ditto. Ordered two soldiers to accompany Arent Moesman to Beeren
island near fort Orange.
An escort was also to the river side and being near the Redoubt lay
there in ambush until the evening, but saw nothing. Another party 25 in
number was at the Great Plot; they returned in the evening, without
having remarked any thing.
7th ditto; Wednesday. This being a day of Prayer (Bededag) nothing was
done. In the evening Pieter Wolfertseu arrived at the Redoubt with Rut
Jacobsen's yacht; brought with him two Christian children which he had
in exchange from the Esopus Indians for a Squaw with a big girl;
brought back the other Indian prisoners; brought also the Wappinger
Sachem whom Couwenhoven had detained in the yacht; says a Christian
woman is kept a prisoner by the Wappingers, and that he had detained
the Chief in her stead until they should surrender the Christian woman.
Nothing else occurred. Sent an escort to the river side to bring up the
two captive children. Couwenhoven said that he has concluded a ten
days' truce with the Esopus Sachem.
8th ditto. Have been, myself, with an escort to the river side to bring
up to Wildwyck the Esopus Indian prisoners & the children with the
Wappinger Indian captive, being in all 9 in number. On arriving at the
shore, found the Wappinger Chief and also one of his Indians on board
Rut Jacobsen's Yacht. Asked Lieutenant Couwenhoven, what were these two
Indians for? Said it was the Sachem of the Wappingers with one of his
Indians whom he had brought along but not as a prisoner—had come
willingly on board as a friend. Asked him, If he would wish to return
home and endeavor to let us have the female christian captive? To which
he answered, yes; says, he will bring her himself in six or seven days.
Whereupon the Council of War decided that he and the Indian with him,
should be released, and as they were at present our friends and had
renewed peace we promised him if he brought back the Christian woman we
should then let his brother go together with another prisoner.
Whereunto he said, 'Tis well; gave him a bark canoe & let him go.
Nothing else happened to-day as it rained unceasingly.
9th ditto. It still rained considerably. Sent an escort to the river
side; Rut Jacobsen sailed with his Yacht for fort Orange. Nothing else
10th ditto (November 1663) A detachment was out with the wood cutters;
nothing else occurred.
11th ditto Sunday, nothing was done except sending a party to the river
side with bread for the people in the Redoubt. ,
12th ditto. A detachment was out in the bush with the woodcutters.
Nothing else transpired.
13th ditto. The Company's Yacht arrived ; brings some provisions for
the garrison; also arrived at the Redoubt a Wappinger Sachem with eight
Indians, bringing a female Christian Captive whom he had purchased from
the Esopus Indians and which he had promised. us on the 8th inst. on
board Rut Jacobson’s Yacht. The Council of War resolved that he and his
attending Indians should be brought up to Wildwyck; they were
accordingly conducted up by Lieutenant Couwenhoven and Captain Thomas
Chambers and brought to Wildwyck. Sent for him to the Council of War
and asked, what he had to communicate? He answered, I am come to
perform my promise which I gave on board the Yacht at the Redoubt, to
bring in the Christian Woman whom I bought from the Esopus Squaw, and I
bring and present her to you now, because we are both friends.
Whereupon we thanked him and said, that we should speak together on the
morrow. Lodged them in Capt. Chambers house and had food furnished
them. Meanwhile a detachment went down to the river side. Otherwise
nothing occurred to-day.
14th ditto. The Council of War met again and resolved to release the
Wappinger Indian, and to give him back to the Chief with one of the
Esopus captive Squaws, pursuant to our previous promise, made on the
eight of November to the Wappinger Chief, on board the Yacht at the
Redoubt. Invited the Chief and his Indians into the Council chamber and
presented him the Esopus Squaw and a little sucking infant, which they
took; presented him also with two pieces of cloth in token of
friendship. The Chief then requested that we should live with him in
friendship, which should be preserved by him. He gave us, in token
thereof; a Bow and arrow and said, I will not make war against the
Dutch, but live in peace with them. We promised him likewise; gave each
other the hand, and the said chief promised us to do his best to obtain
back for us all the prisoners from the Esopus Indians that a mutual
exchange should be made; for tomorrow being Thursday, the Esopus Sachem
would then come with the prisoners according to the promise he gave
Lieutenant Couwenhoven and the provisional truce agreed upon for ten
days with him, for he had promised to fetch the Christian prisoners to
the Redoubt in the space of ten days, to be then exchanged one for the
other. Now, what the result will be, when the ten days are expired,
time will tell. So they again departed well satisfied. Gave them an
escort to conduct them to the river side, and the Council resolved that
the sloop shall remain until the expiration of the time agreed upon
between Lieutenant Couwenhoven and the Esopus Sachem on the 5th
November, on board the Sloop in the Wappinger Creek, to wit: that the
Esopus Chief should bring up all the Christian prisoners to the Redoubt
to exchange them then, one for another, whereupon a ten days' truce was
mutually agreed to. A soldier named Jurien Helm died to day. An escort
was also down to the river side. Nothing else occurred to day.
15th ditto. A vessel arrived from fort Orange with cattle; sent a
convoy to the river side. Nothing else happened.
16th ditto. Another detachment was down to the river. A yacht bound for
the Manhatans arrived from fort Orange to day. Nothing else occurred.
17th ditto. Arranged every thing in order and departed with some of the
Military for the Manhatans leaving in Wildwyck about sixty soldiers
under the command of Ensign Christiaen Niessen.*
That part of the Journal between Asterisks, which follows, is by Ensign
18th Sunday. (November 1663) After Capt Lieutenant Martin Cregiers
departure yesterday, Jan Hendricksen Van Baal came the fourth person up
to Wildwyck. He arrived from the Manhatans in Mr. Abraham's1 yacht and
reported that two Dutchmen were killed by the Savages between Gemonapa2
and the Maize land. Had them escorted, on their return, to the river
side. Nothing else occurred.
19th ditto. Sent another party to the Redoubt and had provisions
brought up. Discharged one man at the Redoubt and sent two others
thither; also, distributed powder to the men, half a pound to each.
Nothing else done.
20th ditto. Sent a. detachment to the woods to draw out timber. This
was all that occurred.
21st ditto. Nothing happened.
22d ditto. Sent a detachment to the river side. Otherwise nothing
23d ditto. The only thing done to day was to send another party to the
river side with grain.
24th ditto. The yachts of Reyndert Pietersen and the Spaniard arrived
at the Redoubt; sent an escort thither. No other occurrence took place.
25th ditto. Sunday. Nothing happened.
26th ditto. Sent down an escort to the riverside to fetch up the Honble
Company's supplies. No other circumstance occurred.
27th ditto. Sent another convoy to the riverside to take down grain.
Otherwise nothing happened.
28th ditto. About one o'clock in the afternoon a Wappinger Indian came
to Wildwyck with a flag of truce; reports that a Wappinger Sachem lay
at the river side near the Redoubt with venison and wished to have a
wagon to convey the venison up for sale, which was refused. The said
Indian told me that the Sachem had not much to say; added further, that
the Hackingsack Indians had represented that four of the Esopus Indians
prisoners in our hands, had died. Whereupon the Indian prisoners were
brought out to the gate to him, to prove to him that they were still
living and well. Sent him down immediately, to his Sachem at the river
side, to say to him that we should come to him to morrow.
29th ditto. At day break had notice given that those who were desirous
of purchasing venison from the Indians should go along with the escort
to the river side. Accompanied the detachment to the shore and
conversed with the Sachem in the presence of Capt Thomas Chambers and
Sergeant Jan Peersen. He said, he had been to receive the Christian
prisoners and should have had them with us before, had he not
unfortunately burnt himself in his sleep when lying before the fire;
shewed us his buttock with the mark of the burn which was very large;
Also said, that six Christian Captives were together at the river side,
and gave ten fathom of Sewan to another Indian to look up the seventh
Christian who is Albert Heyman's oldest daughter, promising us
positively that he should restore all the Christian prisoners to us in
the course of three days, provided it did not blow too hard from the
North; otherwise, he could not come before the fourth day. We, then,
parted after he had, meanwhile, sold his venison. He left immediately
in his canoe.
30th. Sent an escort to the river side with grain. Nothing else
lst December. The only circumstance that happened to day was the
sending away the three Indians with a letter to the Honble Heer
Director General and Council of New Netherland, to whom the following
was written in haste.
“Noble, Respected, Right honorable, Wise, Prudent and most discreet
“To be brief, we could not omit advising Your Honors that three Indians
arrived here yesterday, being come, as they said from the Manhatans,
with an open letter, being a pass not to commit any hostility against
their people to this date. But we cannot determine what sinister design
these Indians may have recourse to under cover of this pass. We
maintain that such and other Indians resort here with such passes; to
spy out this our place. Meanwhile, we being on our guard, placed
sentinels every where before them, to prevent them passing through the
village to examine and pry into it, as they are strongly inclined to
do. In the meantime we inform your Honours that on the day before
yesterday the Wappinger Sachem came with venison to the Redoubt, and we
have had a talk with him, and he promised us, among other things, to
bring us hither all the Christian prisoners, within three or four days,
according to the entries in our daily journal which Your Honors shall
receive from us by the first Yacht. DONE, Wildwyck this first December
1663. (Was subscribed) CHRISTIAEN NIESSEN, THOMAS CHAMBERS."
2d ditto. (December 1663) Sunday. Nothing happened, except that on
account of the hard frost, I requested the skippers of the vessels to
go down to the Redoubt to examine their Yachts which they consented to
do. In the afternoon, after the Sermon, sent a party to the shore to
take down grain and to put it on board.
3d ditto. The military Council having met, the following resolution was
“Ensign Christiaen Niessen proposes to send down, pursuant to
despatches from the Honble Director General and Council, the saddles,
pistols, holsters &, carbines, the best whereof was left by Capt.
Lieutenant Martin Cregier and remains with the Clerk, Mattheus Capito,
as appears also by letters from the Capt. Lieutenant aforesaid together
with the three metal guns and their accoutrements as they were used in
the field, and also one sail.
“The Military Council decided that it was impossible, in view of the
approaching winter, to send the articles down at present as here at
Wildwyck we have no smith sufficiently expert to repair the arms, and
as the Wappingers come almost daily under pretense of exchanging
Christians, to spy out this place which already hath suffered massacre
enough, and consequently, if the articles in readiness were sent away
(which would be publicly seen by other tribes of Indians) two massacres
(which God forbid!) may occur through want of all adequate means, save
“2ndly The Ensign aforesaid moves, inasmuch as the setting out of the
palisades is found as yet to be for the greater part inadequate and not
in accordance with the Capt. Lieutenant's request, and as in many
places palisades have been removed from the curtains and not replaced
by others, much less attention paid to setting out the same, to the
imminent ruin and destruction of this Village of Wildwyck, which God
forfend; and demands further that the inhabitants of Wildwyck may be
notified by the W. Court to put the fort in a suitable state of defense
within the space of three days, and in default or neglect thereof, that
he do it with the best means he may at present find at hand, and demand
repayment therefor when done, from the W. Court at Wildwyck.
“The Military Council unanimously resolved that for the due execution
of said proposal, it be forthwith communicated to the W. Court in
Wildwyck, and that they answer the same without delay. (Signed) THOMAS
CHAMBERS, HENDRICK JOCHEMS, JAN PEERSEN, EVERT PELS*, JONAS RANTSOU,
WALRAN DU MOND, ANTONIE DELAVA."
Also, sent a convoy down in the morning with grain to the river side,
which on returning brought up the Wappinger Sachem and his wife, and
Splitnose, the Indian last taken by us. Which Sachem brought with him
two captive Christian children. stating to us that he could not,
pursuant to his previous promise of the 29th November, bring along with
him the remainder, being still five Christian captives; because three
were at their hunting grounds, and he could not find them, but that
another Indian was out looking for them; the two others are in his
vicinity, the Squaw who keeps them prisoner will not let them go,
because she is very, sick and hath no children, and expects soon to die
; and when he can get Albert Heymans' oldest daughter, who is also at
the hunting ground, and whom he hath already purchased and paid for;
then he shall bring the remainder of the Christian captives along. For
the two Christian children which he hath brought with him, an Indian
child is given him, being a little girl, and three pieces of cloth,
with which he was content. In the afternoon, Jeronimus Ebbing, Nicolaes
Meyer and Frederick the Honble Company's late carpenter, went down
unescorted to the Redoubt, with six wagon loads of grain, not being
willing to wait for the writings and letters which should be sent by
them to the Heeren Director General and Council of N. Netherland; and
the Skipper Lucas Andriessen, also, said that he would not wait for the
Director General's nor any man's letters but be off, as the wind was
Capt. Cregier now resumes and concludes the Journal. — Ed.
19th ditto. (December 1663) About three o'clock in the afternoon we
started from the Manhatans for the Esopus in the Honble Company's
Yacht, with a W. S west wind; arrived that night at Ta[ppan]hook,1
where we cast anchor as it was calm and the ebb was running. against us.
20th ditto. Weighed anchor about eight o'clock and drifted upward with
the flood, but about 10 o'clock the wind came up from the North—so that
we could make sail and weathered the Highland to day, where we came to
anchor anew, as the flood was again gone; saw an Indian paddle across
the river in a canoe, but he was a full half mile from us. Nothing else
occurred to day.
21st ditto. The flood set in about two hours before day; ran through
the Highlands; having got through which, we caught a southern breeze
but at day break it became calm again; so ran by the Kamer and arrived
this night about 10 o'clock at the mouth of the Esopus Kill. Despatched
a man up with a note to Ensign Nyssen to send down some wagons in the
morning with an escort to convey up the Honble Company's supplies which
were sent for the garrison.
22d About 9 o'clock the escort arrived at the beach with the wagons;
entered the kill with the yacht in order to discharge the goods;
remained this night in the kill in front of the Redoubt; it froze
during the night so hard that the yacht was hemmed in by the ice;
arrived at Wildwyck about noon ; sent a convoy to haul stone.
23d ditto. Sunday. No business.
24th ditto. Monday. Assembled the Sheriff and Commissaries of the
Village Wildwyck and handed them the letter sent to them by the Honble
Director General and Council and discharged Sheriff Swartwout from his
office and put [Mattheus Capito] provisionally in his place and
presented him to the Court of Wildwyck according to order, whom the
said Commissaries congratulated and were well pleased with; they
promised honestly to obey what the Heer Director General and Council
have been pleased to order. A party was sent to the Great Plot to cut
oats which happened to be late in ripening, as an opportunity now
presented to cut it and draw it home. The farmers thrashed some of it
also, and the vijm [a hundred and four sheafs] produced five skepels of
25th ditto. Tuesday. Nothing happened except that Reyntje Pieters came
from the river side; he informs us the kill at the Redoubt was still
26th ditto. No occurrence.
27th ditto. A party was out on the Great Plot hauling stone; nothing
28th ditto. The Captain and Lieutenant of the Burghery of Wiltwyck
requested to have a drum according to the promise given them by the
Heer General. By permission of the Military Council a Drum and
appurtenances were given to the officers of the burghery of Wildwyck. A
party was down to the river side to see if circumstances would admit of
the sloop leaving the kill. The party returned and stated that there
was no way as yet to go out of the kill.
28th The officers of the Burghery presented a petition; it reads as
follows :—We the under signed, Tomas Chambrets Captain and Hendrick
Jochems; Lieutenant of the Burghery in Wildwyck, hereby request the
Honble Valiant Heer Marten Kregier, Capt Lieutenant to be pleased to
furnish a keg of gunpowder with lead in proportion on the village
account, to be distributed and used in time of need for the safety of
this place, and we await your Honrs favorable answer. Done Wildwyck
this 28th Xber 1663. (Signed) TOMAS CHAMBERS, HENDRICK JOCHEMS The
answer thereto is as follows:— Petitioners' request is granted.
Whenever they require it at the public expense or for their own
defence, it shall be furnished them from the Honble Company's Magazine
by the officer who will be here. Done, Wiltwyck this 28th December,
29th ditto. The Military Council resolved to issue an Ordinance against
the gunners who usually run about firing on New Year's day or night,
which was also published and affixed. It reads as
“WHEREAS we find by Experience that some persons presume from year to
year to discharge guns on the day of the new incoming year thus wasting
powder unprofitably both in the morning and throughout the day and
sometimes to the great danger of each other and to their own
destruction, both in wounding or destroying their own persons which
frequently occurs therefrom and whereas there are here many ricks and
barns full of grain and straw, and as great disorder and rashness
prevail in many places especially on this day, both in the morning and
throughout the day, by firing of guns which is practised and prevails
more particularly in this place on the above mentioned New Year's day;
Therefore the Captain Lieutenant and valiant Council of War order and
forbid all persons whom it may concern that no one shall presume on New
Year's day, being the first of January to discharge any gun or other
fire arms in front of any houses or any other places where it is not
absolutely necessary, unless for some approaching enemies, and that
under the penalty of six guilders for each shot fired by the person.
Both the Sheriff' and military officers are ordered to pay strict
attention hereunto so that thus our order may be duly obeyed. Thus done
and enacted by the Captain Lieutenant and Valiant Council of War in
Fort Wiltwyck this 29th Xber 1663."
Have been down with a party to the river side to bring away the guns
and other munitions of war. Nothing else occurred.
30th . Sunday. Nothing done as it rained almost the entire day and the
kill became again open.
31st Left the Esopus again in the Honble Companys Yacht for the
Manhatans, the wind Southerly. Weathered the Long Reach where we came
to anchor in the night about twelve o'clock.
1664. 1st January. The wind continuing southerly, tacked to-day as far
as the entrance of the Highlands where we anchored about 9 o'clock in
the evening; the flood being spent weighed anchor and passed through
the Highlands where we again cast anchor.
2d Weighed anchor again, and drifted with the ebb as far down as
3d Having weighed anchor again, drifted down anew with the ebb to the
end of Manhatans island, where we made sail about 8 o'clock in the
morning, the wind being westerly, and arrived about twelve o'clock at
This is the concluding summary of the
section on Derrick and Elizabeth in the Croesen Families of America:
We come to the closure of this section,
which is devoted exclusively to our ancestors, Derrick and Elizabeth
and their respective families. It is interesting to do a little recap
of their lives starting with those early days in Breuckelen, New
York, moving to Staten Island, and finally settling in Bucks County
Derrick was the firstborn son of Garret
Dircksen Croesen and Neeltje Jans, and was born in 1662. His father
received a land patent on Staten Island in 1677 and that set the
course for the family moving westward. Derrick married Elizabeth
Cregier in 1684, and their first child Garret was born in 1685. We
aren't sure of the exact date when Derrick and Elizabeth moved to
Staten Island, but best information seems to place it around 1687 or
1688. They lived on Staten Island until 1710 when they moved to Bucks
County Pennsylvania. While residing on Staten Island, they had seven
more children, the last was Henry, born in 1707.
Derrick had little or no education and
assumed the early role as a farmer, initially working the
twenty-eight acre tract of land at Breuckelen and later overseeing
the Staten Island property. His father Garret died in 1680 when
Derrick was eighteen years of age and this undoubtedly placed Derrick
to the forefront as head of the family. There were many political
changes within the area when the British assumed authority, first in
1673 and later again in 1675. He was briefly involved in the Leisler
rebellion in 1689 and may have been lucky to get off as lightly as he
did. I suspect that it had more to do with religion, than politics.
One can imagine the feelings at that time between the Catholics and
other Protestant religions.
Derrick and his brother Hendrick both
laid claim to ownership of the Staten Island patent when their
father's will was destroyed in a fire. Under British rule, when there
was no written will, the property reverted to the eldest son. Derrick
must have insisted that it be adhered to, with Hendrick protesting
loudly. It was never resolved until 1709 when the property was
finally sold. Soon after the sale, both brothers purchased other
properties, Hendrick on Staten Island, and Derrick in Bucks County.
Neeltje, the third born and oldest
daughter of Derrick and Elizabeth, married Casal Van Hasten and moved
to Bucks County on property that Casal owned. That was in 1709 and
certainly set the stage for the great migration to Bucks County. It
was during this time that Nelltje's second son was born, and both
mother and son died sometime after the birth. Subsequently, in 1712,
Casal decided to leave the area and sold the 580 acre farm to Derrick
They continued to live on this tract
for the remainder of their lives and in 1720, purchased an additional
500-acre tract of land in the adjoining township. This last tract
probably was not cleared of timber and took substantial work to
achieve any type of crop production. The only cash crop was wheat.
Other crops of barley, corn, oats, and vegetables were grown but used
for their own domestic consumption.
There was a major influx of Germans and
Scotch-Irish settlers into the area around this period of 1710, which
created problems for the Dutch. It resulted in uneasy relationships
with other Protestant denominations and eventually forced them to
start their own Reformed churches. The Kroesen family jointed the
first church established in Bucks County in 1711 which was called the
Church at Bensalem and Neshaminy. They later seceded and established
the Feasterville Reformed Dutch Church. In 1751, a second Dutch
church was built at Richboro and finally they were incorporated into
the Churchville Reformed Dutch Church at Churchville, Bucks County,
In 1727, Derrick and Elizabeth elected
to gift deed their lands to the children. All were living at the time
except Neeltje. When Derrick died in 1731, all tracts had been deeded
to the remaining seven children. Derrick died in 1731 at the age of
69, and Elizabeth died in 1740 at the age of 78. Interestingly, these
grandparents had a large decendancy count and oh, how the family
the Croesen Family – last pages of Croesen Families in the 1600s
This is the end of our journey with the
Croesen Families, at least through the 1600s. We started when Henry
Hudson first sailed into New York Bay in 1609. A child was born in
Husum Germany, about that same time that would become part of our
family and heritage. His name was Jan Pieterson van Husum and he
later married a dutch girl by the name of Elsjie from Amsterdam,
In 1614, the Dutch West India Company
started some trading posts on the island called Manhattans, and in
1623 the first settlement was established. In 1626, the first
appointed official governor, Pieter Minuet, purchased Manhattan from
the Indians for twenty-six dollars.
In that earlier period, maybe only a
dozen persons lived there but it gradually grew until some twenty
years later, about 250 persons built their homes and worked at
Manhattan. Other settlements had also been established north on the
Hudson River called Rensselaerswyck, west on the New Jersey shore
called Pavonia, and a third on the Delaware River named Swanendail.
There were many hardships: wars with Indians, outbreaks of disease,
natural disasters, and food shortages.
Our earliest ancestors started to
arrive in the late 1630s; one of the first was Jan Pietersen van
Husum and his wife Elsje. Progenitors of other families sailed from
the Netherlands to America during the same period, and we have
written about many of them. They became a closely united society
which revolved around their church, with many intermarriages. These
were large families who eventually spread westward.
In the early 1640s, first settlements
began to appear across the bay on Long Island. The Reformed Dutch
Church at Manhattan was growing and a newborn child was baptized
there on 9 September 1640 named Neeltje Jans, who later became the
matriarch of the Croesen families. A young man was born at
Wynschoten, Netherlands, about this same time, who would travel to
America and become patriarch of the same family. We know him as
Garret Dircksen Croesen.
The early 1640s were troublesome years
at Manhattan. There were several small, but brutal, Indian wars and
many Dutch lost their lives. They petitioned for more assistance from
the Netherlands, but to no avail and had to manage with the means
available. The English were beginning to press from the northeast,
adding to the worry. The Swedes had settled on the South (Delaware)
River and were making noises that they might also desire to occupy
some Dutch territory. In 1647, a new governor, Pieter Stuyvesant
arrived from the Netherlands, and took over the reigns of governing
New Netherland, a considerable territory comprising all of the Dutch
communities in the area. Stuyvesant was an able governor and
eventually calmed the political waters, giving the Dutch settlers
more autonomy from The West India Company.
In the mid-1650s, more settlers moved
to Long Island and several small settlements were starting to grow –
especially one called Breuekelen. Nearby small hamlets of Gowanus,
Flatbush, New Utrecht, and Flatlands were becoming small settlements
of community activity and commerce, with the first Dutch church being
established at Flatbush in 1654. Jan Pietersen van Husum moved his
family to Gowanus around this period and a few years later, a young
man arrived from Wynschoten, Netherlands, named Garret Dircksen
Garret was a cooper by trade and
immediately established himself in the area, joining the newly formed
Dutch Church in Breuckelen on 29 May 1661. Shortly thereafter on 30
October of that same year, he married Neeltje Jans and their first
child, Dirck, was born on 23 July 1662. At least four more children:
Elsje, Hendick, Catharine, and Annetje were born to the couple over
the next fifteen years.
The West India Company relinquished
control of their American-held territories on 8 September 1664, and
this was a big change for the Dutch and for the family.
Garrett received a land patent of 160
acres on Staten Island in 1677 and this started the family thinking
about moving west. Unfortunately, there wasn't time for Garret to
complete this journey. He died on 7 March 1680, and later that year
his widow Neeltje remarried to Volkert Hendricksen Brees, her
neighbor. The oldest son Dirck (Derrick) was traveling to Staten
Island and was only partly living there in the 1680s. Four years
later, in 1684, he married Elizabeth Cregier, the granddaughter of
Martin Cregier, certainly one of the most distinguished settlers in
Derrick and Elizabeth moved to Staten
Island soon after they were married and farmed the land patent,
living there until around 1709 when that branch of the family moved
to Bucks County, Pennsylvania.
Elsje, the oldest daughter married
William Klaasz and may have moved to Piscataway, New Jersey. The
third child, Hendrick, remained in Breuckelen until around 1687, when
he moved to Staten Island and later married Cornelia Corsen, the
daughter of Captain Cornelius Corsen. Hendrick, well educated, became
the Voorlezer and teacher at the Reformed Dutch Church on the Island.
The fourth child, Catharine, married Nicholas Bakker and also moved
to Staten Island as did the fifth child, Annetje. She was born in
1677 and later married Christian Corsen, who was the son of Captain
Cornelius Corsen and brother to Cornelia. Catharine and Annetje's
families remained on Staten Island where they lived out their lives.
This was the family of Garret Dircksen
Croesen and Neeltje Jans and their five children during the 1600s.
Wight's grandmother was Catherine Jane Osborn, born Ashburn. She is
seen in the center with her husband Levi Osborn in that great family
picture with so many people in their yard. Catherine's ancestors were
William & Sarah Adkinson, Jacob and Sarah Penwell, William &
Katherine Miller, and Catherine's parents Joseph & Elizabeth
website of John Ashburn has some interesting information on these
ancestors at (http://familytreemaker.genealogy.com/users/a/s/h/John-R-Ashburn-Sr/index.html
section of Chicago
1784 Jacob and Sarah were resident's of Doddridge County, Virginia
(now West Virginia) and this is where their son William was born. In
1804 they made their way to what is now Greene County, Pennsylvania
where they lived for a short while before moving west, to a small
settlement about twelve miles from Chicago, Illinois. This settlement
was on the main line of the Wabash Railroad and to avoid confusion
with another settlement on the same line with a similar name the
settlement where the Ashburn family lived was eventually named
During World War One a training
airfield for military fliers was established in this area and was
known as Ashburn Airfield. As the city of Chicago grew, the area
known as Ashburn was absorbed into the city. It is on the southwest
side of the city and is still known as the Ashburn section of
Chicago. Because this section includes the part of Chicago where the
current Midway Airport is located, it is speculated by this writer
that Midway may be the military airfield of World War One days known
as "Ashburn Airfield".
De Silla grave
A distant Krewson cousin (gregorys in emails) sent me a photo he took in the
Oude Kerk in Amsterdam of the Nicasius de Silla grave (tomb number
100). He wrote, “Attached is a file with pictures of Nicasius De
Sille's tomb. He was the grandfather of the Nicasius De Sille who
was in New Amsterdam (early New York). His burial was in the year
1600. It is all in the Warren Cruise book. … It has a pew on it so
part of the top is covered. I asked if the pew would ever be moved
and I was told probably in a few hundred years.”
Joseph Ashburn character
little story is from the Ashburn Family history researched and
compiled by John R. Ashburn Sr., a descendant of the line:
Ashburn, Sr. (William
was a well educated man. He was the first school teacher in this part
of the country (West
teaching in his own home prior to the erection of school buildings.
His own children received their instruction from him. Josephus (
became a teacher, preacher, and philosopher. Following in the steps
of his father, he also taught school in his early home; then at the
Haymond, and later at the Rock Run Hill School. These were called
subscription schools, each pupil paying a specified tuition, most
likely in some kind of farm produce.
old citizen tells this story illustrative of the character of the
Rev. Josephus Ashburn. He had been chosen as a delegate to a
convention, probably at Wheeling. The Rev. Ashburn was on hand early,
wearing his derby hat and best suit of clothes. A stylish wag,
thinking to have some entertainment for himself and friends,
addressed the old gentleman from the "back country"as
"How do you do, my good man? And where might you
hail from?" "From London, England, Sir"came the
amazing reply. "And how did you leave everybody over there?'
"Fine, Sir. Just fine." "And what, may I ask, is
everybody doing over there?' "Attending to his own business,
Sir, Attending to his own business," Rev. Ashburn replied, as he
turned from his tormentor to the consideration of more serious