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This page has:  Ancesters
from Early Brooklyn   Thones Kunders and the 'German Mayflower'   Quakers in Pennsylvania   Simon Krewson   Ulstermen   Ohio Pioneers   Bucks County Hollanders       

Ancestors from Early Brooklyn

In the 1620's the Dutch bought Manhattan Island from Native Americans and established a trading center New Amsterdam (New York) and other settlements along the Hudson River. This area was called New Netherlands.
Most of the early ancestors of the Krewsons were from a small group of settlers that founded Brooklyn. The only early ancestors in this line that do not appear to have farmed on Long Island were Francis Cregier and Walburg de Sille. These two stayed in Manhatten.
Once New Amsterdam was a little collection of clapboard houses with some orchards and pastures, while Long Island was completely wild: woods, open grassland, salt marshes and bays with wampum shells that could be used as money to buy furs from the natives.  New Netherlands, including New Amsterdam, was the possession of the Dutch West Indies Company and administered by a company director.
In 1636, a group began to buy Long Island land from the Indians, amounting to 5000 acres that became Flatlands. Another group bought 1265 acres that became Gowanus. These tracts were good pasture, not rocky like Manhattan. The land rush continued and by 1640 large tobacco plantations were thriving along the East River. That year another huge expanse was sold by the Indians. During the same few years, English settlers were buying up the east side of Long Island. Soon the population of the western part of Long Island was large enough to be incorporated as Breuckelen.
The population was very mixed. A number of Germans, Scandinavians and French were as active as the Dutch in creating farms in Long Island.
 Between 1640 and 1645 there was a succession of very bloody struggles with the Indians. The incidences grew until, in 1643, the Dutch killed with great cruelty some River Indians who were helpless fugitives from the Mohawks. The act was so treacherous that all the tribes united to attack the Dutch in fury. All the outlying farms and small settlements were destroying. The survivors gathered inside New Amsterdam and other fortifications. Both sides used torture and neither spared women and children.
So the time line is: 1609 New York Harbor entered by Henry Hudson and claimed for the Dutch, 1616 Minuit buys Manhattan for the West Indies Company, 1624 Dutch colonist begin arriving,1634 Settlement begins in Brooklyn, 1640 First ferry between Manhattan and Brooklyn, 1664 Area ceded to English, 1673 Dutch regain area, 1674 English regain area.
The population of the New York area has always been cosmopolitan. There was a real spread from aristocrats, through rich burgers, tradesmen and farmers, to indentured servants and slaves. There were sailors passing through. There were criminals and smugglers on one hand and very upright citizens on the other. There were, of course, the Dutch. There were English from England and from New England; French Walloons and Huguenots, Germans, Swedes and other Scandinavians, black slaves, and many others in lesser numbers. Eighteen different languages were common on New York streets. There was no orderly uniformity in New York, unlike New England.
The New Netherlanders were fond of free and joyous living; they caroused often, drinking deeply and eating heavily; and the young men and maidens loved dancing parties, picnics, and long sleigh rides in winter. There were great festivals, as at Christmas and New Year's. Liberty was valued even though the company often restricted it.
Our ancestors appear to be a typical mixture of the New Netherland population.
Hans Hansen Bergen
Hans Hansen, ship's carpenter, later farmer and perhaps boat builder, was born  about 1610 in Bergen Norway, moved to Holland and then in 1633 to New Amsterdam. He died 30 May 1654 in New Amsterdam (now New York), New Netherlands. His father was Hans Nilsen (~1582 Osthammar's Brul Norway) and his mother was Marta Jonasdotter (~1580-). He is the ancestor of the Bergen family in Long Island and New Jersey. He was known as Hans Hansen, Hans Hansen Bergen, Hans Hansen Noorman, Hans Hansen Boer, Hans Hansen Norman, Hans Hansz. They all mean Hans, son of Hans, from Norway. Hans Hansen as well as his wife and her parents never learned to write, signing their names with marks, as the great majority of the inhabitants of New Amsterdam did.

In 1639 he married Sarah Rapalje. They had children: Anneken, Brecktje, Jan, Michiel, Joris, Marretje, twins Jacob and Catalyn, all baptized in the Dutch Reformed church in New Amsterdam.
On 9 July 1638, he entered a partnership with Andries Hudde, in a tobacco growing enterprise on 'the flatland on the Island of the Manhates'. This involved the housing and feeding of 6-8 people brought from Holland to work on this farm.
He occupied and later owned a lot on Pearl street next to the fort wall next to his father in law, and had large in
terests in an extensive plantation elsewhere on the island of Manhattan. He acquired a farm on Wallabout Long Island of about 400 acres. In 1647 he acquired the patent for the New Amsterdam and the Long Island properties.
On May 26 1648, he was pardoned for smuggling because he had been a respectable resident in New Amsterdam for 14 years and he begged pardon of God and the court.
There is a story in the Bergen family, that Indians chased Hans while he was in his tobacco plantation. He climbed a tree and was trapped in it by the Indians. He thought he was going to be killed and so started singing a hymn. (In mijn grootste nood o'Heere - In my greatest need, O Lord). The Indians listened, liked his singing and let him go. He had a very good singing voice.
In the beginning of 1643, the river Indians were attacked by their dreaded enemies, the Mohawks, fled to the vicinity of the Dutch settlements for protection. While reposing in fancied security, Director Kieft, on the application of some rash individuals, and contrary to the advice of some of the best men in the colony, allowed an expedition to be fitted out, who in the night attacked the unsuspecting natives at Pavonia and Curler's Hook, and foully murdered some 120 of them. On this, some of the settlers on Long Island, to show their prowess, and probably fearing that the Long Island Indians would make common cause with the much abused River Indians, petitioned the director for leave to attack the Mareckkawick or Brooklyn Indians, a branch of the Canarisie tribe. This petition was signed by Gerret Wolferson (Couwenhoven), Jacob Wolferson (Couwenhoven), Dirck Wolfman, Hans Hansen (Bergen), and Lambert Huybertsen Mol. The director, in consequence of these Indians having been peaceable, wisely refused the request, but gave permission "in case they evince a hostile disposition, every man must do his best to defend himself." Under this permission, but contrary to its spirit, a secret expedition was organized against the Indians, whom they plundered of two wagon loads of corn, killing three of their number, while endeavoring to save their property. In consequence of this attack, they made common cause with the River Indians, the tomahawk was raised against all the Dutch settlements, whose residents fled to New Amsterdam for protection, leaving their buildings to the torch, and their cattle and plantations at the mercy of, and to be destroyed by the savages. During this time Hans fled to his city residence for safety.
From the above petition it appears that Hans Hansen at this date resided on his Long Island tract but moved to the town until order was restored.
In consequence of the general distress, the director sent a friendly message to the Long Island Indians, the indignant savages would not listen, but standing afar off, derided his messenger, calling out: "Are ye our friends? Ye are merely corn thieves." However, on the arrival of spring, when the Long Island Indians wanted to plant their corn, they relented, and a peace was patched up between them.
Sarah Rapalje
Hans wife was Sarah Rapalje. Sarah Jorise Rapalje was probably the first female child born in New Netherlands of European parents. Her father was Joris Jansen Rapalje and her mother was Catalyntje Jeronimus Trico, both from France via Holland. Sarah was born in Fort Orange (Albany) in 1625. (Note the very young age of her marriage - about 14 yrs). When Hans died, she had 7 surviving children.: Aertie Tunisen or Anthonis (Polhemius), Catalyntje Tunise
n (Denyse), Neeltje Tunisen, Aaltje Tunisen (Claasz), Antje or Annetje Tunisen (Brinckerhoff) and a twin Joris Abramse. She then married Teunis Gysbert Bogert and had more children, so she is the common maternal ancestor of both the large Bergen and large Bogert families from New York and New Jersey. Teunis Bogert immigrated from Hykoop Holland in 1652 to Brooklyn. Sarah died about 1685, aged 60.
The lot of Hans Hansen in New Amsterdam was sold by Sarah in 1654, shortly after he died. In 1656, Sarah asked to be granted meadows that were next to her (Hans') place in Long Island (at 'Waalebocht'). She said her neighbours mowed the meadows and stopped her using them even though they had meadows near their own lands. She said she was burdened with 7 children, and also asked for tax exemption. She got the meadows but not the tax relief. She seems to have been a little devious because she didn't say that she had re-married so was not alone with her 7 children. In 1656, Sarah was sued for payment of a debt of Hans. Defendant stated "she knows nothing of the debt, inasmuch as the plaintiff hath not spoken to her for a long time, and also it was not counted in the settlement of the deceased's estate." She requested a delay of payment until next harvest, which was agreed to by the plaintiff. So it appears that in this period after Hans died and shortly after her marriage to Teunis, she was short of money.
When the English took the colony in 1664, all the land patents had to be requested and granted again. Teunis got patents to Hans' land in his own name rather than in the name of Hans' children. There is no record of any of the children receiving any of Hans' estate. On the other hand Teunis did settle a sizable debt that Hans owed to the West India Company. The method of payment was interesting. "Whereas the late Hans Hansen from Berghen in Norway is indebted in the Books of the West India Company at Amsterdam in Holland, the sum of seven hundred eight and seventy guilders; And whereas the Widow of the aforesaid Hans Hansen has again married Theunis Gysberts Bogard, which Theunis Gysberts Bogaert hath offered to discharge the aforesaid debt, if he could satisfy it by paying in Wampum value, two for one, and although the aforesaid sum of fl. 778 ought to be paid in Beaver value; yet it being considered that it is an old debt, not contracted by Theunis Gysberts Bogard, but by his predecessor; and that debts of this nature, have been paid both by the late Dutch Government and in the time of Colonel Richard Nicolls, my predecessor, in Wampum, two guilders for one; the same is permitted and allowed to the said Theunis Gysberts Bogard; whereupon the aforesaid sum of fl. 778, in Wampum value, two for one, being in Wampum fl. 1556, is paid by the aforesaid Theunis Gysberts to Mr Isaac Bedloo in quality as commissioner. Therefore I do hereby acknowledge to be satisfied as regards the aforesaid debt which the late Hans Hansen from Berghen in Norway owed to the aforesaid West India Company. I therefore promise to indemnify and exonerate the Widow and heirs of the above named Hans Hansen from Berghen in Norway."
It is not known how Hans became in debt to the company. One theory is:
"The directors in Holland in 1639, to encourage emigration, in addition to a free passage to farmers and their families, promised to furnish them on their arrival for six years with a farm suitable for the plough, a dwelling house, a barn, suitable number of laborers, four horses, an equal number of cows, sheep, and swine in proportion, with the necessary farming implements; for which they were to pay a yearly rent of 100 gl. or $40, and 80 pounds of butter. On the expiration of the lease, the tenant to return the same number of cattle received on entering into possession, retainin
g for himself whatever increase there might have been from the original stock. It may be that Hansen availed himself of the promises of 1639, and that he neglected to return or pay for the stock furnished for his farm at the Wallabout, and thus became indebted to the company."
In 1667, Sarah was granted a patent on a lot in New York. This was not Hans' old lot.
Joris Jansen Rapalje
Sarah's father was Joris Jansen Rapalje (also called George rather than Joris and surname also spelt deRapalj
e, Rapalye, Rapalie, Rapelle), born in Valenciennes France in 1604. He was the ancestor of the Rapalie families in New York and New Jersey. His father was Jean Rapareilliet. His baptism is recorded as: Georges, illegitimate son of Jean Rapareilliet. He was the youngest of a large family. Perhaps because he was illegitimate, perhaps because he was youngest, or perhaps to avoid religious harassment, he went to Holland. Joris was a weaver by trade.
He was probably a proscribed Huguenot who took refuge in Holland. Holland, a Protestant country, welcomed religious refugees from France, Belgium and other countries. French-speaking refugees founded churches in the Netherlands and held services in French. All Huguenots in those days may have been known by the general title of Walloons in Holland.  In 1662 Rapalje became a member of the Reformed Dutch Church of Brooklyn. The Walloon index contains a record of Joris Raparlie 19 years of age living in Amsterdam Holland and Catharina Triko 18 years being married in 1624.
He and Catalyntie Trico emigrated to New Netherland in 1623 on the ship Unity. He lived in Fort Orange (Albany) for 3 years and then moved to New Amsterdam and then Wallabout Brooklyn. For 22 years he occupied a house and lot he owned on the north side of the present Pearl Street, abutting the New Amsterdam fort. He kept a tavern (tap-house). He moved to his farm on Long Island in 1655. He died in Brooklyn in 1662 at 57.
In 1644, Joris and his son-in-law Hans were in partnership in hiring out some cattle.
Joris Jansen Rapelje died in Brooklyn New York 21 Feb 1662 at 57. In 1637, Rapalie bought a tract of land from the Indians, situated on Long Island, and in 1643 he was granted patent to the land. It was about 335 acres in what is now Brooklyn.
Rapalie served as a magistrate of Brooklyn and other official duties. He died soon after the close of the Dutch administration, having 11 children. His children were: Sarah Joris (Bergen, Bogaert), Marritie Jorise (Vandervoort), Jannetie (Vanderbek/Remsen), Judith Jorise (Van Nest), Jan Joriszen, Jacob, Catalyntie (Westerhout), Jeronemus, Elizabet Joris (Hooglandt/Dirckse), Daniel Jorise, Annette Joris (Ryerson, Fransz).
There were troubles in 1660. Rapalie petitioned to be allowed to leave his house standing on his farm for the present, which application appears to have been denied. At this period, in consequence of the Indian troubles, an order had been issued for those residing outside of the villages to abandon their dwellings, and remove to the villages, which were fortified, for safety. He asked permission to create a village opposite Manhattans and was refused.
Catalina Jeronimus Trico
Sarah's mother was Catalina Jeronimus Trico, born in 1605 in the tiny hamlet of Pry in northern France. She died in 1689 in Wallabout, Brooklyn, Kings Co., Long Island, New York at 84. Her name was variously written Catelyn, Catalynte, Catalyntje, Catalyntie Jeronomus ,Catalina Trico or Tricot. Her husband was Joris Rapalje.
In 1671, a patent was granted to "Cathaline, widow of Jores Rapalje," for a lot in New Amsterdam.
A court case is on record. In 1642, meeting Poulus Van der Bek at the house of  Hans Kierstede, she asked him, "Why did you strike my daughter?" He answered, "You lie." She replied, "You lie like a villain and a dog," raising her hand
at the time, on which Poulus struck her, and called her vile names. On this she sued him for slander, and on the trial, Jan. 12, 1645, Poulus admitted that he "knows nothing of the plaintiff but what was honest and virtuous." For the blow given he was fined 2 1/2 guilders, and charged not to repeat the offense on pain of severer punishment.
Visitors in 1679 recorded, "M. de la Grange came with his wife to invite me to accompany them in their boat to the Wale Bocht, a place situated on Long Island, almost an hour's distance below the city, directly opposite Correlaer's Hoeck, etc. This is a bay, tolerably wide, where the water rises and falls much, and at low water, is very shallow and much of it dry, 
etc. The aunt of de la Grange (Catalyntie Trico), is an old Walloon from Valenciennes (her husband not her), seventy-four years old. She is worldly minded, living with her whole heart, as well as body, among her progeny, which now number 145, and will soon reach 150. Nevertheless, she lived alone by herself, a little apart from the others, having her little garden and other conveniences, with which she helped herself." She and Joris became the ancesters of over a million North Americans.
She gave a deposition. "Catelyn Trico aged about 83 years doth Testify and Declare that in the year 1623 she came into this Country with a ship called the Unity whereof was Commander Arien Jorise belonging to the West India company being the first ship that came here for the said Company; as soon as they came to Mannatans now called New York they sent Two families and six men to harford River and Two families and 8 men to Delaware River and 8 men they left at New York to take Possession and the Rest of the Passengers went with the ship up as far as Albany which they then Called fort Orangie. When as the Ship came as far as Sopus which is 1/2 way to Albanie; they lightened the Ship with some boats that were left there by the Dutch that had been there the year before a tradeing with the Indians upont there oune accompts and gone back again to Holland and so brought the vessel up; there were about 18 families aboard who settled themselves att Albany and made a small fort; and as soon as they had built themselves some hutts of Bark: the Mahikanders or River Indians, the Maquase: Oneydes: Onnondages Cayougas and Sinnekes, with the Mahawawa or Ottawawaes Indians came and made Covenants of friendship with the said Arien Jorise there Commander Bringing him great Presents of Bever or other Peltry and desyred that they might come and have a Constant free Trade with them which was concluded upon and the said nations came daily with great multitus of Bever and traded them with the Christians. There said Commander Arien Joris staid with them all winter and sent his sonne home with the ship; the said Deponent lived in Albany three years all which time the said Indians were all as quiet as lambs and came and Traded with all the Freedom imaginable. In the year 1626 the Deponent came from Albany and settled in New York where she lived afterwards for many years and then came to Long Island where she now lives."
Jan Pieterszen van Huysen
Jan Pieterszen Van Huysen (also called Jan Pietersen Van Husum  or van Holstein) was born about 1605 in th
e town of Husum, then in Denmark but now in Schleswig-Holstein Germany. He came to New Amsterdam after 1635 and is first recorded as a tobacco farmer in 1638. He was married three times: to Elsje in Huysen in 1629 and had 4 children, to Grietje Jans van Groeningen Jans in New Amsterdam in 1652 and had 2 children, to Elsie Jansen in 1663.
Jan was a ship carpenter by trade and lived in Gowanus (now Brooklyn). He probably died about 1675.
The first emigrants from today's Schleswig-Holstein came in 1636 from Bredstedt (North-Friesland) to New Amsterdam. The reasons for emigration were possibly the poverty of people who lost their homes after the terrible storm tide of 1634. Also the Thirty Years war (1618-1648) had an effect. From lists of Schleswig-Holstein immigrants who settled in New Netherland with the port New Amsterdam in the seventeenth century, we have: Jan Pietersen, a woodsawyer, from Husum was in New Amsterdam about 1639. Under date of March 3, 1639, we have an indenture of Thomas Wesson to serve Jan Pietersen from Husum for three years.
Elsje was killed by Indians in 1651. All her children were born in America. The sons took the name Staats when they took the oath of allegiance in 1687. The children were: Pieter Staats, Neeltie Staats (married to Gerret Croesen), Jan Staats, Annetje Staats (married to Jan Van Cent).
Grietje probably died in childbirth. Her children were: Elsje and Sara.
Frederick Lubbertsen

Frederick Lubbertsen was born in Amsterdam Holland in 1606 and died in Brooklyn 22 Nov 1679. His parents may have been Lubbert Albertsz and Aeltje Jansd of Amsterdam. Frederick emigrated about 1639. In 1640 he acquired the patent for a tract of land in South Brooklyn and patent for another plantation in Brooklyn in 1645. He was magistrate in Brooklyn. He was one of the 12 men who dealt with the trouble with the Indians in 1641. Frederick was owner of a slave named Antony.
He was married twice, first in Holland to Styntje Jans (1607-1657) with child Rebecca, and second in New Amsterdam to Tryntje Hendrickse with children Eljse and Aeltje. He lived in Brooklyn.
Frederick married Tryntje in 1657 and they lived on Long Island. She was the daughter of Hendrick Thomassen and Elsie Martense, and the widow of Cornelius Rietersen Vroom. Tryntje was born in Holland shortly before her parents came to New Amsterdam.
In 1679 Frederick wrote his will. "Will of Fredrick Lubberse and Tryntie Hendrickse, his wife. Daughter, Elsie married Jacob Hansen. Testators also bequeathed to her a farm and one thier interest in residuary estate. To Rebecca the sume of six hundred guilders wampum. To daughter Aeltie a farm. To son Peter and Hendrick Corson a farm. Also one-third in the said farm to then brother Cornelius Corson. Testatrix bequeaths all gold and silver belonging to her body to her two daughters, share and share alike. Residuary estate divided among the children."
His daughter Eljse was born 1658 and married Jacob Bergen of Wallboght Brooklyn. They had children: Hans, Fredrick, 
Jacob (married to Jan Kroesen), Sara, Catryna, Marretje, Breche (married to Han Kroisne), Eljse (married to Henry Kroesen), Cornelia (married to Derrick Kroesen). There must have been quite a few 'Krewson' double cousins.
Garret Dircksen Croesen
Garret Dircksen Croesen was born in Winschoten Groningen Holland about 1638 and arrived in New Amsterdam about 1657 aboard the Draevet from Wynschotten. Nothing is known of his family in Holland. He married in Brooklyn in 1661 Neeljte Jans Staats (born 1640 on Long Island). He had a patent on 160 acres in Gowanus Brooklyn re-granted by the English in 1677 and also patent on Staten Island. He died in 1680. His widow remarried and moved to the Staten Island were his children were raised. 
Garret, Garret, Garrett or Gerret was the original immigrant of the Krewson family or Croesen, Cruise, Cruser, Crusen, Cruzen, Kroesen, Krewson, Krusen, Kruser etc., at last count 14 different spellings. 
Simon Jansen Van Artsdalen
Either he was born about 1629 in Leiden South Holland or in 1629 in Bernholm, Denmark. No doubt his father was called Jans. But no matter where he came from, he died in 1710 at Flatbush. He was also known as Symon Van Arsdale, Simon Van Arsdalen, Janse Van Arsdale. He was Magistrate, constable. He married Pieterje Claesen Wycoff and their children were: Cornelis Symonse, Jannetje, Gertrude Simonse, Jan, Matje, Maritje, Symon Symonse.
Pieterje Claesen Wycoff
Pieterje Claesen Wycoff, the wife of Simon Jansen Van Artsdalen was probably born about 1630 in of Netherlands. She married Simon Jansen Van Artsdalen about 1650 in of New Amsterdam. There is very confusing information on her family. It may have been a family Swedish or Dutch.

Thones Kunders and the 'German Mayflower'
In 1683 the 'German Mayflower', the Concord, sailed from Rotterdam via London to Philadelphia bringing the first German immigrants to Pennsylvania.  On the ship were 13 families (33 persons) coming to prepare for more German immigration.  All came from Krefeld in Germany and were Quakers with ties to William Penn. Before becoming followers of Penn they had mostly been Mennonites. The two groups were similar; the Quakers were called the English Mennonites. Under their leader, Pastorius, they founded Germantown in Philadelphia. One of our ancestors, Thones Kunders, was a passenger on the Concord and a founder of Germantown. Thones Kunders is the origin of the Cunard (in various spellings) family in North America.
After  the arrival of this little band, the Quaker Friends meeting in Germantown was held in the house of Thones Kunders until 1986 when a meeting-house was built. Kunders was Burgess of Germantown in 1691, Town Recorder in 1696, Justice in 1702, Juryman on many occasions, Overseer of the Quaker Friend's Meeting up to 1702 and had other func
tions in the church. Pastorius and others wrote the Anti-Slavery document in his house in 1688. This was the first such document in America. It was too radical for its time but had a lasting effect of the attitudes of Quakers and of German immigrants to Pennsylvania.
The immigration started by the Concord group was called the Palatinate German immigration and form the Pennsylvia Dutch communities. 'Dutch' here meaning from Germany not Holland. Only a couple of years before the Concor
stampd, Penn secured a royal charter for land in Pennsylvania. One of Penn's coverts to Quakerism, Pastorius, became an agent handing land transactions. He organized and went with the Concord group. These founders were followed by thousands of Palatines, and then by Swiss and Alsatian Germans. In the end there were several million German immigrants.
The founders came from the city of Krefeld in the Lower Rhine near Düsseldorf. It was a silk and linen center, and Thones Kunders was a weaver and a blue dyer. The area prided itself on being a haven of tolerance during the 17th century, and a refuge for those suffering religious oppression. When changes in the rule of the region caused the spirit of religious acceptance to diminish, some among the Mennonite and Quaker families decided to accept the invitation of William Penn to settle in America and take part in his 'holy experiment'. Penn promised religious tolerance.
Penn and Pastorius arranged a parcel of land for the Krefelders. It was six miles north of Philadelphia with a wood between them and a bridle path through. The first years were difficult. The first winter the settlers lived in cellars under the ground with just roofs above ground. But they had skills in weaving, tailoring, carpentry, showmaking and farming and so began to prosper. Log and stone houses were built, flax was grown, looms and spinning wheels were built. Vines were made in their homeland and so they used the native grapes to create vineyards. The first Germantown Fair in 1701 featured their trades and products, particularly those of 'grapes, flax and trade'. By this time Germantown had a Main Street lined with peach trees Fifty families with gardens and farm fields north and south of the settlement. There were a number of water mills. Pastorius established a school system. The town's prosperity, self-government and good administration was a model to the number of immigrating Germans.

Quakers in Pennsylvania
A number of our ancestors came through Pennsylvania and were Quakers or associated with the Quakers.
What sort of people were the Quakers? The group arose as a reaction to the violent religious disputes of the English civil war period and the religious wars in Europe. Their main philosophy was:
They were strange plain people who said little and were usually on the side of the underdog. They were considered rude in their lack of respect for authority. Their word was trusted by everyone and therefore they did well in business and were or became well off.  Often they would not take part in the military or take an oath. In their early history they were persecuted terribly. Penn, a Quaker himself, encouraged them to come to Pennsylvania.
In America, they tended to live near one another and if they became short of land for their children, a whole group of them would move at the same time. The Quakers tended to give land to their children as they married so that they would stay near rather than wait and leave it to them after death.
The ancestors of Levi Osborn include many Quakers. First, Margaret Cunnard (see Thones Kunders) was from a Quaker family and married Nicholas Osborn in a Quaker ceremony. These were Levi's great grandparents. Nicholas' actions have a Quaker feel about them.

"Nicholas Osborn was born about 1729. Different sources claim that he was born in England and that he was born in America and part of the Osborn family which emigrated from New England to New Jersey, to the Philadelphia area in the early 1700's. I have not been able to determine which of these two hypothesis, if either, is correct. We do know, however, that Nicholas married Margaret Cunnard in Christ church, Philadelphia March 15, 1753. He and his wife were "Friends" in Pennsylvania and Virginia. In the mid to late 1750's they joined some of Margaret's relatives in Neerville, Loudoun county, Virginia, just east of the Blue Ridge mountains. Here Nicholas purchased 350 acres and raised his family providing for them through farming and milling. He may have been the Captain Osborn who appears in the Virginia records of the Revolutionary War. At the age of 75, in 1804, he moved to Trumbull county, Ohio, "to remove himself, his family and friends from the slave-holding south." He purchased one thousand acres of land in Youngstown township, five hundred acres in Canfield township and other tracts at $2.62 per acre, which he gave to his family and friends who moved with him from Virginia. With him came Abraham, Anthony, Joseph, and their families, Aaron, then single, and the families of William Nier, John Wolfcale and others. John Osborn and his family came a short time before the rest. His son, Jonathan, who married Elizabeth Russell stayed in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, but his children eventually moved to the Youngstown, Ohio region. His daughter, Sarah married James Russell, stayed in the northern Virginia area near Harper Ferry, where she died, and her children eventually moved to Champaign County, Ohio with other Russell and Neer relatives. Margaret Cunnard died shortly before the move to Ohio and is buried in Loudoun county, Virginia, probably in the St. Paul's church cemetery, although there is no marker. This cemetery is on land previously owned by Nicholas."
Another notable ancestor group was the Woodward, Marshall and Thornborough families. These are ancestors of Levi on his mother's side.
Abraham Marshall and Mary Hunt
"We are not entirely sure of the accuracy of the dates of Abraham's arrival in America as 1684 minutes of Darby Monthly Meeting list charter members as Abraham Marshall, Jacob Simkoake (Simcock), John Mendinghall & Elizabeth Bartram. Possibly this is a note inserted later in the minutes or perhaps Abraham came early to America and did not transfer his Quaker membership until 1700. He might also have been on a ministerial visit at the early date and then returned to England. Abraham and Mary Hunt Marshall lived long and useful lives, serving in many capacities at Darby, Newark, Kennett, and from its inception, Bradford Monthly Meeting in Chester County, Pennsylvania. Bradford Meeting House was on or near the northeast corner of Abraham's land in Newlin Township. According to the "History of Chester County, Pennsylvania," the site was purchased from Edward Clayton, by deed of 10th month 10th day, 1729, the trustees being Abraham Marshall, Richard Woodward, Peter Collins, and Richard Buffington. Here a house was built in what is now the graveyard, and stood until 1765. The first house, which was of frame or logs, was moved up from the Marshall farm, and used for many years as a stable. On the 8th day of the 3rd month in 1769 it was directed at Bradford meeting that a memorial be prepared for Abraham and Mary. This was a high honor, not often granted, for Quakers did not believe in personal accolades except for very, very exceptional service in the faith. In the 3rd month of 1770 the following memorial was prepared:"We understand he was born at Gratton, in Derbyshire Old England, and educated in the profession of the church of England; in his youth he was favour'd with a visitation of divine love, but not keeping close thereunto, when amongst his companions he suffered loss. When about fifteen or sixteen years of age, our worthy friend John Gratton being abroad in truth's service, was concern'd to have a meeting at a town called Alnwick, where this our friend then resided, who so powerfully declared the truth, that he amongst divers others was convinced; and carefully abiding under the discipline of the cross, he in time received a part in the ministry. About the year 1697, he came over to Pennsylvania, and for some time resided near Derby, where he enter'd into a married state, and in a few years afterwards removed to the forks of Brandywine, then a new settled part of the country, the nearest meeting being about eleven miles, which he seldom missed attending when of ability of body; he was also instrumental in settling this called Bradford meeting, within the compass of which he resided the remainder of his days. He was an example of plainness and self denial, and concern'd for the support of the discipline. He travelled into New-Jersey and the southern provinces where his service in the ministry was acceptable, his doctrine being sound, and his life, conversation and deportment adorning the same. When far advanced in age, his hearing and memory failing, render'd his usefulness not so extensive as in his younger years. For some time before his decease, he seemed very desirous of his change, often expressing, 'That people should so live in this world as to fit them for another.' About twenty four hours before he died, he said to those with him, "Let me go, let me go. People 'should live in love.' Then said, 'Farewell, farewell;' after three or four weeks illness or rather growing weaker with age, he departed in a composed frame of mind, on the 17th of the twelfth month 1767, and on the 20th was interr'd in friends burying ground at Bradford. By the general account, in the ninety-seventh year of his age, but we have some reason to believe he was one hundred and three.Mary Marshall, his widow was born in Kent in Old England, and came to America with her father when about two years and half old. She survived her husband about fifteen months, and departed this life, after about four days illness, quiet and easy, in the eighty-seventh year of her age, leaving a good favour in our remembrance."There is no doubt that Abraham Marshall was a man of great stamina. At Bradford Monthly Meeting on 19th day, 12th month, 1740: "Abraham Marshall has for some time had drawing in his mind to visit Friends in Virginia and North Carolina and desired a certificate for same." Abraham was then 72 years old, and a virtual wilderness existed between Pennsylvania and North Carolina. The request was a typical ministerial calling for a Quaker, and the desired certificate was produced on 19th day, 1st month, 1741. Perquimans Monthly Meeting in North Carolina records his arrival on 6th day third month 1741 and Pasquotank Monthly Meeting on 7th day 3rd month 1741. There is no record from the Virginia meeting but it was no doubt Hopewell Meeting as it was established prior to 1740.Perquimons Friends had this to say about his visit: "his servis amongst us has been well received his testimoney being sound and atended with a good Degree of Divine power and Tendernes of Spirit and his inosent Conversation adorning his Doctrin." Pasquotank reported: "Our worthey Ancient friend Abraham Marshal whom we love and Esteem having Spint some time in these parts and Visited most of the Meetings hereaway and now Intending homeward: We on his behalf Certifie that his prudent Conversation and Ministry hath been very Acceptable to us Edifying and Comfortable."
Richard Woodward and Deborah Stanfield
The Woodward family came to Pennsylvania from Acton. " Richard Woodward, Sr; his elder brother Robert Woodward (Robert of Rockland Manor); their brother-in-law Thomas Eavenson, married to Elizabeth Woodward (previously married in England, to Hannah Woodward, dec'd, probably Elizabeth's sister), were believed all born in England. They arrived together in PA before 1687. It is assumed these first settlers were affiliated with the Society of Friends (Quakers). It is known their children were members of the Society of Friends and had responsibilities in church affairs.  The Woodwards, Eavensons, and Simcocks were all believed to be residents of Acton Parrish, Cheshire, England, before coming to America.
. John Simcocks purchased large parcels of land from William Penn in England to resell in the Colony of Pennsylvania. Thomas Eavenson bought land from John Simcock, and for a time he and Elizabeth lived near her brothers in Chester Twp. Brothers Richard Woodward and Robert Woodward, both had sons named Richard Woodward, both born in the same year. Both lived in Chester Co, PA at about the same time. Fortunately, the two Richard Woodwards (son of Robert and son of Richard, Sr.) lived in slightly different areas of Chester County which helps in sorting them out. They also belonged to different Quaker meetings. Later Richard, son of Robert, lived in East Bradford and Richard, son of Richard, lived in West Bradford. Most Woodward descendants intermarried with others of the same faith and continued to be Quakers for about 4 generations."
"The family of Richard Woodward's second wife Deborah Stanfield is documented. The ship Endeavor of London, master George Thorpe, arrived 7th month, 29th day, 1683, at Pennsylvania. Among passengers listed were Fran Stanfield and Graas his wife, late of Garton in Cheshire, husbandman, and children, Jam, Mary, Sarah, Eliz, Gras and Hannah (which tells us Deborah was born in Pennsylvania). They also had servants Dan Browne, Thos Marsey, Isa Brookersby, Rob & Thos SidBotham, John Smith, Robt Bryan, and William Redway. (Families who Arrived at Philadelphia, 1682-1687, Penns. Mag., V. 8) The servants listed might be indentured people whose passage was guaranteed by Stansfield, but it indicated the family had money….
The actual marriage record of Richard & Deborah Stanfield Woodward is missing but at a monthly meeting at the home of Nathanial Parks (Concord Quaker meeting) "on the 13th day of ye 11th month 1701 Richard Woodward and Deborah Stanfield appeared at this meeting it being ye second time; and nothing appearing that might obstruct their aforementioned intention - Therefore this meeting have gave them their allowance to proceed according to the good order of truth - This meeting order George Pearce to attend the marriage to see if it be accomplished seemly according to truth and make return thereof to ye next monthly meeting." We can assume then that Richard and Deborah were married sometime between 13 day 11th month 1701 and the 12th month meeting date. ….
When Bradford Monthly Meeting was set off from Concord Monthly Meeting in 1737, Richard Woodward was designated Elder of the Meeting. Quakers had no paid clergy for their meetings. Their "ministers" or "preachers" were called by God to testify about their faith and often traveled to far places to carry the word. The Elders were in charge of the meetings for worship and watched over the ministers that they did not abuse their calling. The Elders also represented their meeting at Quarterly and Yearly Meetings."
Thomas Thornborough and Sarah Hamman
This couple was born in Cootehill Ireland and died in Pennsylvania. The Thornborough family had only been in Ireland for a generation and considered themselves English Quake refugees from oppression. Thomas came to America with his brother Edward; he and his nephew Walter went to Virginia. Later in 1756 Thomas and Sarah returned to Pennsylvania.
The Yearly Meeting of Sufferings in Philadelphia "was informed that Thomas Thornbrough and his wife, 2 Aged Friends, belonging to Monthly Meeting of Hopewell, have sometime ago been driven from their habitation by the incursion of the Indian Enemies on the frontiers..." This was the beginning of the French and Indian War. Thomas' grandparents were Charles Thornborough and Elizabeth Leyburne, daughter of Thomas of Methop. They were Lancaster landed gentry. Charles became a Quaker and he was forced to sell most of his lands in 1638-41. The family moved to Ireland.
It seems probable that a English Quaker/German Mennonite tradition comes down to us in many ways that we hardly recognize through Levi Osborn, although he was not himself a Quaker. 

Simon Krewson
Simon Krewson (1816-1863), grandmother's grandfather, led an adventurous life. He managed in his short life (47 years) to: become a blacksmith and wheelwright, move west from Pennsylvania to Indiana, make 2 trips to the California gold fields by the Horn and by the Santa Fe trail, kill an Indian in self defense and die in battle in the Civil War. Orson Krewson told mum that he had very red hair, a fair skin and a powerful build. Our family have a conch shell that he brought back from the Pacific and the bow of the Indian he killed (where the bow got to is unknown). He was the namesake of his grandfather.
Gaylord's account is, "Simon Krewson lived in Prospect Corner one mile east and one quarter mile north, then back in the field on the west side of the road. His wife was Margaret Gilkison and they had eight children. Orson Clark, our grandfather was the fifth, born in 1651.  Simon Krewson was a blacksmith by trade. He was an expert at shoeing horses, sharpening plow shares, welding and fitting iron tires on wooden wagon wheels. In those days the latter was a special trade called a wheel wright. For forge fuel he would burn hard wood only enough to form coke. Then use the coke for fuel to do the forge work. Simon Krewson made three (?) trips to California gold mines of the 1849 gold rush days. The first was by water around the south end of SA. The last one overland by the Santa Fe Trail. At one time he encountered an Indian who shot at him with bow and arrow but missed. Simon brought the Indian bow back with him as a keepsake and gave it to his boy Orson Clark. Simon Krewson fought in the Civil Was on the side of the north and indeed lost his life on the battlefield in 1863. He is buried in Prospect Cemetery (?) which is across the road south from Prospect Church. The emblem of the Masonic Lodge is carved on his gravestone." (somewhere else I ran across the information that he was buried in Gattalin Tennessee Old Sec #50 and as he died in battle this seems likely, also I believe that he only made 2 trips to California but perhaps this is wrong.)
Simon Krewson appears to have been one of the founders of Prospect Indiana. "The Prospect Society was organized September 30, 1848, with William Cotton, now deceased, as leader. Services were held in the dwelling houses of John A. Lepper and Simon Krewson and in the school house (which was, it might be mentioned, for two years the extra room of the cabin home of Simon Krewson. A log church was built about 1853, which was the house of worship until 1861, when the present church house was erected."
When news of the 1849 Gold Rush reached the eastern seaboard, many took ships from there around the southern tip of South American (Cape Horn) and up to California (later there was another sea route to Panama - overland to the Pacific - up to California but disease and delays were a problem; even later another sea route to Mexico and overland from there.). It often took 5-8 months to go the 18000 nautical miles around the Horn and it was not a pleasant journey. Argonauts, as the passengers were called, had to get used to bad food and bad water. The ships were crowded and uncomfortable. Going down the east coast to the South Atlantic sometimes meant being blown all the way to Cape Verde off West Africa. The worst part of the journey was the Horn itself.  Violent storms off the Cape posed a constant danger to even the most experienced mariners. The gales there "produce long, loud, fierce blasts, bearing down on the sea and ship for hours and hours together. Their effect...is to produce long, huge swells, over which the ship mounts with a roll, then plunges into the abyss again as if never to rise." This would almost always have been the traveler's first experience of the tropical plants and animals, the icebergs in the Antarctic Ocean, Latin/Catholic culture, the sinful dens of San Francisco etc.
The early overland route was the Santa Fe Trail. Later, other more northern routes were used because they were easier on wagons and the Indians were less hostile. There were a number of parallel trails that were called the Santa Fe Trail. The trail was only a small part of the journey. There were a number of ways to get to the head of the trail at Independence and a number of ways to get to California from the end of the trail in Santa Fe or from points before Santa Fe. We really do not know his exact route or even whether he took the same route on his journeys. I believe he came back overland from his first visit and when overland both way on his second visit. The overland route was shorter than the sea route but it took almost as took almost as long (about 5 to 6 months and over 2000 miles) and was almost as hard and dangerous. There were epidemics of cholera and other diseases, thirst and hunger, very hard work, many accidents and danger of attack by both Indians and bandits. It was probably not that much cheaper either.
The Arkansas Gazette of May 14, 1852, noted that "it is calculated that out of every 100 persons who have gone to California, fifty have been ruined, forty no better than they would have been had they stayed at home, five a little better, and four still better, and one has made a fortune." Simon Krewson did not get very rich or poor, or we would have known about it. Whether he made money from looking for gold or from his skill as a blacksmith, we do not know. I suspect the latter. Whatever his motivation, he went again, leaving behind his wife Margaret and 5 children, Thomas, Clarrisa, John, Sarah and Orson. He may have been paid to go with a wagon train because of his knowledge of California or have had a brain wave of how to find gold or to make and sell mining equipment or just didn't want to farm. Who knows?
On the second trip to California or on the way back he had the duel with the Indian. I have not found a written description of this incidence so I will have to go by my memory of being told the story as a child. In some rocky place on the trail, Simon and an Indian brave came suddenly face to face, a surprise to both of them. Both of them immediately took aim, Simon with a gun and the Indian with a bow and arrow. The Indian was slightly faster but Simon was more accurate.
It seems that Simon quietly farmed for a few years and then joined the Union Army during the Civil War. He was First Lieutenant in the 101 Indiana Infantry Company G. "The members of the One Hundred and First rendezvoused at Wabash in August, 1862, and were mustered into service September 7, with William Garver, of Noblesville, as Colonel. Their first duty in the field was the defense of Covington, Kentucky, against the threatened attack by Kirby Smith. Next the regiment went in search of Bragg's forces, marching about to many a point, and then in pursuit of John Morgan for a week, in mud and rain, and was unsuccessful. Then it visited various points in Tennessee, engaging in skirmishes and other duties, with camp and headquarters at Murfreesboro. In March, 1863, our men (in the Second Brigade) were skirmishing around and beating up hidden rebels, and, happening upon Morgan with 3,700 men, repulsed him, with considerable loss. The One Hundred and First lost forty-three killed and wounded. Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Doan, of Marion, was in command."  Simon's adventurous life ran out of luck in this battle.

The protestants from northern Ireland who came to America in the middle of the 1700s are called Scotch-Irish or Ulstermen. Early in their immigration to America they were also called Ulster Irish, Northern Irish, Irish Presbyterians and just plain Irish. They were very different from the (also called just plain ) Irish that immigrated in the middle of the 1800s from southern Ireland during the potato blight. Among our ancestors are some Ulstermen: James Harris' parents, Elizabeth Shields' parents Francis Shields and Isabel Smith, Thomas Gilkison and perhaps more.
In an effort to pacify the north of Ireland, James I confiscated the lands of the Irish rebels and settled them with outsiders, mostly from the lowlands and borders of Scotland. This killed two birds with one stone for the king, because he was also trying to pacify the Scottish borders, which was somewhat lawless. At least 100,000 were moved from Scotland to Ireland and formed a Presbyterian Scottish buffer against the Irish Catholics. At first they prospered. Then conditions grew severe: the native Irish rose up against the settlers, the English government tried to eliminate Presbyterianism, the woolen trade in Ulster was attacked with laws to protect English woolens, rents were raised (rent-racking) and finally there was a severe drought. The Ulstermen fled to America - many as indentured servants if they could not afford the expense.

In the Pennsylvania Gazette it was reported "that Poverty, Wretchedness, Misery and want are become almost universal among them; that...there is not Corn enough raised for their Subsistence one year with another; and at the same Time the Trade and Manufactures of the Nation being cramped and discouraged, the laboring People have little to do, and consequently are not able to purchase Bread at its present dear Rate; That the Taxed are nevertheless exceeding heavy, and Money very scarce; and add to all this, that their griping, avaricious Landlords exercise over them the most merciless Racking Tyranny and Oppression. Hence it is that such Swarms of them are driven over into America."
The 'great migration' of the Ulstermen from 1717 to the American Revolution, brought at least 200,000  from Ireland to Philadelphia. They settled in western Pennsylvania then down the Shenandoah Valley into West Virginia and the backcountry of Maryland, the Carolinas and Georgia. They formed a buffer between the seaboard colonies and the French and Indians to the west. They were the archetypal frontiersmen, moving westward with a rifle and a bible. Self reliant was how they were described. The same attributes that saved them in the warfare in the Scottish borders and in Northern Ireland, served them in frontier America. They became the backbone of Washington's army in the American Revolution. We think of Protestants from Ulster today as having exaggerated loyalty to the British Crown, but that was not true of the Scotch-Irish of the 1700s who were very disappointed with their treatment by the English.
The backwoodsmen was described: 'He was a farmer so far as was needful and practicable out of the reach of all markets, though as often as not his corn was planted and his grass mown, with the long-barreled short-stocked ponderous small-bore rifle upon which his life so often hung, placed ready and loaded against a handy stump.  What sheep he could protect from the bears and the wolves, together with a patch of flax, provided his family with covering and clothing.  Swarthy as an Indian and almost as sinewy, with hair falling to his shoulders from beneath a coon-skin cap, a buck-skin hunting shirt tied at his waist, his nether man was encased in an Indian breach-clout, and his feet clad in deer-skin and moccasins.'
In Pennsylvania and West Virginia the Ulstermen, Germans and Quakers formed a culture that was the kernel of the settlement of the west - what we think of as an American accent, American country-western-folk music, American cooking, the ancestry of most American Presidents. Of course there are many, many other sources of American culture but the bulk of pioneers in Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee and from there westward started in Pennsylvania and West Virginia.

Ohio Pioneers

Ohio Territory was the first of the inland 'frontier' states. Many of our ancestors lived for some time in Ohio: Joseph Ashburn, Elizabeth (Hart) Ashburn, Catherine Jane (Ashburn) Osborn, Levi Osborn, Margaret (Gilkison) Krewson, Simon Krewson, Sarah Ann (Ballard) Wight, John Wight, Elizabeth (Harris) Osborn, Jacob Osborn, William Wight, Garret Hart, Alice (Woodward) Harris, James Harris, Mary (Fix) Osborn, John Osborn, Nicholas Osborn and probably more. Our only American ancestor family that did not live in Ohio was the Eastman branch.
These people past through Ohio. They sometimes died there, sometimes married and raised children there, sometimes were born there but as far as I can find, they never spent their whole lives there.
Ohio Territory was west of the Appalachians, south of Lake Erie and included present Ohio and parts of Indiana, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. The Iroquois had conquered it from the Shawnee, held it and used it for hunting. As tribes were pushed out of the seaboard colonies and the St. Lawrence area, they moved into this region. Both the French and the English claimed the area. So two colonial powers and a number of Indian tribes were all trying to gain control of the Ohio Territory.
Ohio was the center of a whole period of American history. First the French and Indian War of the 1750s pitted the French colonies and the Indians that they armed in Ohio against the British colonies and their Indian allies. The British won and the Ohio region went to them.
In 1763 George III proclaimed a huge Indian Reserve from The Appalachian Mountains to the Mississippi and from Florida to Newfoundland, ie the whole of French middle America and order all French residence to leave the area. Also English colonists were not allowed to settle there. The whole reserve was annexed to the province of Quebec.
The colonies were not very pleased. They felt they had done the hulk of the fighting and now were not being allowed to add parts of the Ohio territory to their colonies or to settle on the land. This was one of the 'Intolerable Acts' that lead to the American Revolution. So many frontiersmen ignored the Proclamation and entered the territory, fought with the Indians and settled there.
After the American Revolution, this area was ceded to the new government and slowly the Indians were displaced by settlement and by 1800 they had mostly moved farther west. Pennsylvania, Virginia, New York and Connecticut all claimed all or part of the Ohio Territory. In the end Pennsylvania and Virginia got some of the land and the rest became the Northwest Territory and in 1803 the state of Ohio. It was not open to slavery.
Ohio was "the smaller end of a huge funnel through which America's migrating masses were channeled on their way to the broad interior."
Most of the early settlers were American-born. The New-Englanders settled mostly in the Connecticut Western Reserve in the northeast. The largest number of settlers came from the mid-Atlantic states especially Pennsylvania and settled in the middle of the state. Settlers from New Jersey came to the Symmes Purchase. Settlers from the upland south came to the west central part of the state and the Virgina Military District was used to settle veterans. There were large numbers of settlers from overseas as well, particularly from Germany and Northern Ireland. The immigration became very diverse as the 1800s progressed.
Our ancestors where mostly in the northwest corner of the state - Lake, Turmbull, Mahoning, Columbania counties. The book 'Trumbull and Mahoning Counties' describes this area. In this area, Youngstown "was the place to which mearly all who owned land or desired to own land came. It was the center and mustering ground for the early settlers and proprietors of the Western Reserve, the place at which they rested and from which they branched off into the wilderness, following and guided by township lines marked by blazed trees, to the tracts purchased from the land company."
"The primitive Reserve presented a great variety of soil and scenery. A green robe of tightly matted forest, broken only here and there by a stream or Indian clearing, protected the virgin soil from the rays of the sun. Streams were all larger then than now, not because the annual fall of water was greater, but because nearly all that did fall was poured into the channels which nature provided. Deep umbrage chilled the surface and destroyed the conditions of evaporation. In addition a compact, unstirred vegetable soil prevented the water from penetrating the earth. When the country came to be cleared up and stirred up, courses were opened, by the plow and decaying roots, to coarse, porous formations beneath the surface, which now freely admit and carry off a large proportion of the rainfall. When the first settlers arrived the flat lands were wet and swampy, and were consequently neglected by those seeking locations for homes. There was an ample choice for those who come with the idea of purchasing, for nearly every stockholder was anxious to dispose of part of his land in order to make back payments due.."
Building a house is described as follows. "Several men in company then selected a site for a cabin with that enthusiasm which cheerfulness always creates. They then set to work. Neighbors for miles around were there to lend a friendly lift. One of the party was appointed captain, whose business it was to direct the work of the day…..First the ground was cleared. The trunks of large straight grained trees were split into clapboards for roof and puncheons for the floor. Smaller trees were cut down and logs of suitable length prepared for the walls of the cabin. Flat stones were placed at each corner for the foundation, on which two heavy logs were adjusted, one at each side of the building. These were notched at distances of about four feet, and straight poles laid across to serve as joists or sleepers for the puncheon floor. A skilled axeman then took his place at each corner, and as log after log for the walls tumbled into place it was notched near the ends so that the next, crossing at right angles, would rest more firmly. Thus log by log the cabin was raised to the height of about eight feet; another row of joists was then placed across for the upper floor. One or two logs more and then the gable was commenced, which was built up of smaller timber secured by poles running the whole length of the building at intervals of about three feet. On these clapboards four feet long were laid in such a way as to make a tight roof."
"The very best timber was always used for making clapboards, and, considering the tools used, they were split out with surprising accuracy. The roof was fastened down with weight poles instead of nails, which were at that time scarce and expensive. Weight poles were kept in position by blocks at the ends running from one of the other. It took persons skilled in woodcraft to dress puncheons for the floor. One side was hewn smooth, and the other notched, so that their surface, when laid, was exactly even. A good workman could make a floor as smooth as one made of plane dressed boards. Less care was taken with the second, or loft floor. When the floors had been laid, and the roof weighted down, the heavy work was finished, and the neighbors left the proprietor to complete the structure with his own hands. With an axe his dressed down the rough edges of logs inside, and filled the cracks with sticks and mortar make of mud mixed with leaves and grass. An opening was cut in the gable end, four feet long and six feet high for a fire place. On the outside a chimney was built, on a foundation of flat stones, of small puncheons thickly interlaid with clay. It was four or five feet deep at the base but tapered rapidly toward the top. A fire chamber was made of flat stones to keep the wood from burning. Near the top of the large opening was placed a pole of some kind of hard wood, to which chains were attached for hanging kettles, ovens, and other cooking utensils over the fire."
"An opening about five and a half feet high and four feet wide was made in one side of the building for a doorway. The door was made of puncheons, pinned to cleats at ach end, and was hung on heavy wooden hinges. A window was made by cutting out a piece of one or two logs, pinning strips of lath across, and fastening over the opening greased paper. Glass was rarely seen in the West at that period, and sold at prices far beyond the most well-to-do pioneer's means. The family generally moved in before all these details were completed. Cabin furniture corresponded with the simplicity of the building. A bedstead was made by tying together the ends of two poles, one reaching to the end, the other to the side of the cabin. A block placed under the corner stood in place of a bad post. Strips of bark fastened to pins at each side of this rude frame work formed a matting on which a husk and straw bed was thrown - in some instances leaves took the place of these materials. A neat linen curtain was hung around the bed, the space underneath being utilized in stowing away various articles. Few cabins afforded more than one or two chairs, benches made with the auger and broad axe being used in their place. A table was brought from the East by most pioneers, though it was also sometimes a home made article."

Early Days in Bucks County Pennsylvania for Hallanders
from A Brief History of The Low Dutch Reformed Church in Lower Bucks County

In 1702 a Provincial Council called Paulus Van Vlecq, a precenter (schoolmaster), at Kinderhook, to answer charges that he preached against the order of the governor of New York. Van Vlecq, aspiring toward the ministry, had been forbidden to preach by the governor for having failed to return to Holland for ordination. Rather than face charges he left the province and headed to Pennsylvania. The Dutch settlers whom he joined there had been among the first people to follow the Quakers into Bucks county. Most of these settlers did not come directly from Holland, but rather from older Dutch settlements in New York and New Jersey. At the time Van Vlecq arrived there was a growing Dutch community along the western bank of the Neshaminy Creek. As there existed no established Dutch Reformed church in this area to serve their spiritual needs, he approached the Presbytery of Philadelphia seeking ordination. He gained their confidence, was ordained, and promptly organized a congregation in Bucks county. The now Reverand Van Vlecq's church at "Bensalem & Shammenji" was established on May 20, 1710. Thus came into being a Dutch speaking Reformed congregation under Presbyterian authority.
As this new ministry flourished, Rev. Van Vlecq set up preaching missions at several other Low and High Dutch communities, among them: Whitemarsh, Skippack and Germantown in Pennsylvania, along with Hopewell and Six Mile Run in New Jersey. His ministry grew, and in 1711 he married the daughter of one of the elders of the Bensalem congregation.
Things changed however, in 1712. He was called to Philadelphia, to answer charges of bigamy before the Presbytery. A rumor had been circulating that he had left a wife in Holland. He denied the charges, but the issue remained unresolved. Later evidence was presented against him, including a letter from his own mother. Rev. Van Vlecq, found to be lying, left his ministry in disgrace.
Van Vlecq's congregation, however, managed to survive. Some parishioners joined with a neighboring Scots Presbyterian congregation, at Abington. The Rev. Malachi Jones, founder of the Abington congregation, received them, and for a time there seemed to be a stronger Dutch presence than Scots-Irish at that church. Some of the Dutch congregants eventually asked Rev. Jones to preach at their church and he obliged. By 1719 the Dutch presence at the Abington church diminished as the Rev. Jones preached more frequently at Bensalem. The Dutch church records were reopened, and the congregation again flourished. In the years that followed however, Scots-Irish settlers came to out number the Dutch at not only at Abington, but also at Bensalem, which by 1730 had quite clearly become a Scots-Irish Presbyterian church.
Fearing the loss of their identity, the Dutch congregants withdrew to form a new Dutch Reformed congregation. These break-away Dutch invited the Rev. Cornelius Van Santvoort, a minister from Staten Island, to visit. He arrived on May 3,1730, and effected a new congregation, installing two elders, two deacons and performing several baptisms. On the same day, a letter was addressed by the congregation to Reformed church authorities in Holland, requesting a permanent minister to serve their community. It would take several years for a suitable candidate to be found. Even then the congregation had to wait as their new minister to be had not yet completed his religious training. In the mean time the Rev. Van Santvoort traveled down from Staten Island several times a year to see to the spiritual needs of the congregation. On October 5, 1737, the Rev. Petrus Hendrickus Dorsius finally arrived in Philadelphia and made his way to join the faithful in Bucks county. Upon arriving he stayed with various members of the congregation until a home could be found for him. Between April 1738 and March 1739 he over saw the erection of a proper church for his congregation. The chosen site was beside the burial ground, in Feasterville.
Rev. Dorsius was motivated and headstrong in his leadership, and his congregation thrived. But in 1743 he traveled to Holland, to protest before the Synod his having been reprimanded for having assisted, without due authority, in the ordination of a theological student he had instructed. Unsuccessful, he returned to his flock in 1745. His standing weakened, and at odds with both the authority of the Coetus (Convention) of the Reformed Church in Philadelphia, (which had been established by the Reformed Synods of Holland to oversee the Reformed churches of the area), as well as his congregants. He soon stepped down, returning to Holland in 1748.
In 1749 a new minister was found for the congregation. The Rev. Jonathan Du Bois, a member of an old Huguenot family from New York, took the pulpit. Under his tutelage the congregation again prospered. In 1751 it was decided that a second church should be erected, to accommodate growth. Thus Nicholas Winecoop [Wynkoop], William Bennett, Derick Krusen and Joseph Fenton purchased one acre of land, from Evan Jones, in central Northampton township. This new church was erected in Addisville, (now Richboro). It is interesting to note that the deed to this land states, "that none should be buryed [sic] in their Burying Ground but their own congregation except such that shall be strangers..." Together this congregation of two churches, at Feasterville & Addisville, came under one organization and was known as The Reformed Dutch Church of North & Southampton, or more commonly, as the congregation of the Buck and the Bear. This latter title being a reference to two popular taverns located near the respective churches.
Between 1814 and 1816, the congregation erected another new house of worship. This one to replace both of the older structures. The new church was located in Smoketown, thereafter called Churchville, on the line between Northampton and Southampton townships.
The 1840's & 50's saw new growth in membership, and a decision was made to erect a second church, to accommodate the blossoming congregation. The chosen site stood near the old Addisville church. Ground was broken in 1858, and work completed the following year. This new church was successful in its own right, but there was an uncomfortable-ness between the old and new almost from the start. This ended in 1864, when the Addisville church broke from the congregation at large, forming The Reformed Dutch Church at Addisville.

Dutch Reforned Church at Neshaminy & Bensalem

This congregation has its roots in the Neshaminy & Bensalem congregation, and has, over the years, been served by churches at several locations. The oldest site, having been built in 1738-39, was located in Feasterville area of Southampton township, adjacent to the community's old burying ground. A second church was built in 1751, at Addisville, Northampton township, to aid in serving the growing congregation. Finally a third church was built in 1814, at Smoketown, now called Churchville, in Northampton township, to replace both of the older ones. This was the forerunner of the church that exists at that location today.
On May 20, 1710, the church at Bensalem & Neshaminy was formally established with the Reverand Paulus Van Vlecq as pastor of this congregation, as well as one at Germantown. On the same day Rev. Van Vlecq established a church council at Neshaminy & Bensalem, including:
Elders: Hendrick VAN DYCK & Leendert VANDERGRIFT Decons: Stoffel VAN SANDT & Nicolaus VANDERGRIFT
Members at Neshaminy & Bensalem:
20 May 1710           Hendrick VAN DYCK & his wife Jannetye HERMENSE, by certificate           Leendert VANDERGRIFT & his wife Styntye ELSHUERT, by certificate           Cristoffel VAN SANDT, by certificate           Nicolaes VANDERGRIFT, by certificate           Hermen VAN SANDT, by certificate           Johannis VANDERGRIFT, by certificate           Gerrit DORLANDT & his wife Gysbertye GYSBERTS
22 Jun 1710           Johannis VAN SANDT, by profession           Jacob YSELSTIEN, by profession           Joris VAN SANDT, by profession           Baerentye VENKERKCK, by certificate           Elizabeth BROUWERS, by profession           Lea GROESBEECK, by profession           Cattlyntye VAN DEUSEN, by certificate
04 Nov 1710           Baerent VERKERCK           Kobus VAN SANDT           Bartholomeus JACOBSE           Neeltye KROESEN           Geertye MARTENSEN           Rebecca VAN DER KEEFT, widow of Jacobus VANDERGREFT           Hendrickye JACOBSE, widow of Lauwerense JANSEN, by certificate           Hester VANDERGRIFT, by profession           Deborae VANDERGRIFT
23 Jun 1710 [sic]           Rebeckae VANDERGREFT, wife of Kobus VAN SANDT           Neeltye FOLCKERS, wife of Joh. V. DEGRIFT           Maychen V. DE GRIFT, wife of Joris V. SANDT           Raeghel CURSON, wife of Stoffel VAN SANDT           Abraham VAN DUYN           Johannis HERNHARDUS           Johannis NEAL           Maria SELE, wife of Jurigen CROSSEN           Jannetye VAN SANDT           Andre DE NORMANDE           Dirck KROESEN and his wife Elisabet           Jarmetye VAN DEYCK, wife of D. VAN VLECQ
05 Sep 1711           Jacobus HEYDELBURGH and his wife Anna HEYDELBURGH           Antye VAN PELT           Maycken VERKERCK

from History of Bucks County Pennsylvania, Southampton Township chapter
    At an early day, and following the English Friends, there was a considerable influx of Hollanders into the township, and the large and influential families of Krewson, Vanartsdalen, Vandeventer, Hogeland, Barcalow, Vanhorne, Lefferts, Vansant and Vandeveer descend from this sturdy stock. Other families, which started out with but one Holland ancestor, have become of almost pure blood by intermarriage. The descendants of Dutch parentage in this and adjoining townships have thus become very numerous. Both the spelling of the names, and their  pronunciation, have been considerably changed since their ancestors settled in the township.
    Derrick Krewson (Original spelling Kroesen) was a land-holder, if not a settler, in Southampton as early as 1684, for the 11th of September, 1717, he paid to James Steele, receiver of the Proprietary quit-rents, £9. 11s. 4d. For thirty-three years' interest due on 580 acres of land in this township. In March 1756 Henry Krewson paid sixteen years' quit-rent to E. Physic on 230 acres in Southampton. The will of Derrick Krewson was executed January 4, 1729, but the time of his death is not known. He probably came from Long Island, the starting point of most of the Hollanders who settled in Bucks county (Helena Temple, Churchville, who died, February 1884, would have been 100 years old had she lived to June 10. She was of Low Dutch stock, daughter of Garret Krewson, Southampton, a patriot of the Revolution, who died, 1852. She was baptized September 22, 1784, by the Rev. Simeon Van Arsdalen, who had been dead ninety-eight years when she died, and the pastor of her middle life, Jacob Larzelere, had been deceased fifty years. She lived to see three generations born, live and die. At ninety-six she walked to church. At ninety-nine and within a week of her death, she kept her own house and table, and was busy with home duties. In her long life she was sick in bed but a single day. She was a fair example of the sturdiness of the Holland settlers in Bucks county).
    The Vanartsdalens of Southampton and Northampton are descended from Simon, son of Jan Von Arsdalen, from Ars Dale, in Holland, who immigrated to America in 1653, and settled at Flatbush, Long Island. He married a daughter of Peter Wykoff, and had two sons, Cornelius Simonse and John. The former became the husband of three Dutch spouses (Tjelletzi Reiners Wizzlepennig, Ailtie Willems Konwenhoven, and Marytzi Dirks.), and the latter of two. Our Bucks county family comes mediately from Nicholas and Abraham, sons of John, who settled in Southampton. Nicholas married
Jane Vansant, and had seven children, and John Vanartsdelen, of Richborough, was a grandson. Simon, the eldest son, died in 1770, and a daughter, Ann, married Garret Stevens. The Vandeventers (The correct name is Van de Venter), Vanhornes, Vandeveers and Vansants (Van Zandt), are descended from Jacobus Van de Venter, Rutgert Vanhorne, Cornelius Vandeveer, and William Van Zandt, who came from Netherland in 1660. There are but few of the Vandeventers and Vandeveers in the township, but the Vanhornes and Vansants are numerous.
fromHistory of Bucks county Pennsylvania, Bensalem chapter
The Bensalem Presbyterian church is probably the oldest religious organization in the county, if we except the society of Friends. Its germ was planted by the Swedes before the close of the 17th century. In 1697 the Swedish settlers south of the Neshaminy were included in the bounds of the congregation at Wicacoa, Philadelphia, while Reverend Andrew Rudman was the pastor, and he probably visited that section occasionally to minister to the spiritual wants of the people. In 1698 Reverend Jedediah Andrews, a Presbyterian minister from New England, rode from Philadelphia up to Bensalem to preach and baptise. In 1705 the "upper inhabitants," those living between the Schuylkill and Neshaminy, made application for occasional service in their neighborhoods in the winter season, because they were so far from the church at Wicacoa, and no doubt their wish was gratified.
    It is impossible to tell the exact time a church organization was effected, but it was between 1705 and 1710. The church was opened for worship May 2, 1710, and Paulus Van Vleck was chosen the pastor on the 30th, who preached there the same day. The elders at Bensalem at this time were Hendrick Van Dyk, Leonard Van der Grift, now Vandegrift, Stoffel Vanzandt, and Nicholas Van der Grift. This was probably the first church built, but before that time services were held at private houses (There are records of births and marriages before the church was built). The church was now Dutch Reformed. Van Vleck was a native of Holland, and nephew of one Jacob Phoenix, of New York. He was in that city in June 1709 when he was ordered to be examined and ordained, so as to accompany the expedition to Canada, but the Dutch ministers declined for want of power.
    While Van Vleck was probably the first settled pastor at Bensalem, other ministers preached there at irregular periods. In 1710 Jan Banch, a Swedish missionary from Stockholm, came to this
country, and preached at various places. He was at Bensalem, January 21, 1710, where he baptised several, among which are the names of Vansandt, Van Dyk, Van der Grift, Larue, and others, whose descendants are living in the township. Johan Blacker, a Dutch minister, preached there about the same time. A record in his hand, made January 10, 1710, declares that Sophia Grieson and Catrytje Browswef are members of "Sammany" church (Was near the Buck, in Southampton, and now known as the North and Southampton Reformed church, with one place of worship at Churchville and another at Richborough). In December 1710 there were nineteen members at Bensalem: Hendrick Van Dyk and his wife, Lambert Van de Grift, Cristoffel Van Zand, Nicholas Van de Grift, Herman Van Zand, Johannis Van de Grift, Gerret Van Zand, Jacob Elfenstyn, Jonas Van Zand, Janette Remierse, Trintje Remierse, Geertje Gybert, Lea Groesbeck, and Catelyntje Van Densen. Van Vleck was likewise pastor at Sammany and Six Mile Run, a locality not now known (The church at this place was finished November 15, 1710, and the wardens elected were: Adrian Bennet, Charles Fontyn, Barent de Wit, and Abraham Bennet. When the missionary Jan Banch visited the church in August 1712, it had twenty-seven members, and among them are found the names of Bennet, Van Dyk, Densen, Peterson, De Hart, Klein, etc.). September 21, 1710, a committee was appointed by the Philadelphia Presbytery to inquire into Mr. Morgan's and Paulus Van Vleck's affair, and prepare it for the Presbytery. In the afternoon the committee reported on Mr. Morgan, and after some debate he was admitted. The case of Van Vleck gave them greater trouble and was more serious, for there "was serious debating" before he was received. In 1711 Van Vleck was represented in the Presbytery by his elder, Leonard Vandegrift, of the Bensalem church, but he fell under a cloud and left in 1712, and was not heard of afterward. As himself and wife were witnesses to a baptism that took place at Sammany, January 1, 1712, he must have left after that time. His wife's names was [Janet Van Dycke, daughter of Hendrick, above mentioned, and their daughter Susanna married Henry Van Horn, and has numerous descendants in the county.*] We find Jan Andriese, of Philadelphia, pastor at Bensalem, September 11, 1711; but the exact time of his advent is not known, nor the reason or it. It is possible Van Vleck was dismissed about this time, or that he resigned at Bensalem to devote all his time to Sammany and Six Mile Run. It is not known how long Mr. Andriese continued pastor, but probably until the calling of Reverend Maligus Sims, who was there in April 1719 when the church had but twelve members.
From History of Bucks County Pannsylvania, Wrightstown chapter
Garret Vansant came into the township in 1690, and settled on a tract in the northwest corner. He sold 200 acres to Thomas Coleman, in his life time, and at his death, subsequent to 1719, the remainder was inherited by his sons, Cornelius and Garret. The Vansant family lies buried in the old graveyard on the Benjamin Law farm.