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Desperately Seeking Dugglebys
An Overview of Ellen Reid (Duggleby)'s Research into her Family History
Part of an article by Greg Turnbull for a local magazine May 07
Ellen has been researching the history of the Duggleby family for over 5 years now. This has been a pains-taking, difficult task, and sometimes expensive labour of love, which all began with what seemed like a simple request from her Dad (Bernard Roy Duggleby) to find out where his father was born (as he had a vague idea that it was somewhere in Scotland)? The answer required much more work than she had expected, and ironically turned out to be just 3 miles from where her father himself was born, in Bridlington. However, an interest in the subject had now been kindled…
Next Ellen used her computer to search various on-line records, such as the GRO (General Records Office), and the IGI (Church of Latter-day Saints) - which suggested in which parish records she might find some traces of the Dugglebys. Having found out that there were not many Dugglebys alive to day (or indeed have ever been born: less than 1,500 since 1541!), she decided to visit various key record offices in person, including: Northallerton, the Borthwick Institute (York), Beverley, Manchester, and London.
This worked entailed long periods of studying indexes, microfiches, transcripts, and even actual church manuscripts looking for the proverbial needle in a haystack (or in this case a Duggleby in Yorkshire). Sometimes an entire day's work might only result in a few birth, marriage, or death records being found. However, over the months and years this information gradually grew into quite a large database, and it began to be possible to piece together some of the true history of the Duggleby family: where they came from, where they lived, and what sort of things they had done, and places they had moved to.
Of course there were many problems along the way. Locating the right parish records is not easy (as each little community had its own set) and even in olden days families sometimes moved around from one place to another (for work or marriage), even across county boundaries. Some records are missing, incorrect, or damaged, or just almost impossible to read after all these years (faded, stained, etc.). Very early records have to be translated from Latin or Old English, and naturally gaps sometimes occur as not everything was properly reported to be written down, or spelling mistakes would occur that obscured the record - she has so far found almost 100 spelling variants of the name Duggleby!
Some of the many results of her studies include that the name Duggleby comes (fairly obviously) from the small village of Duggleby in N. Yorkshire - which was even mentioned in the Doomsday book, although no Dugglebys have actually lived in the village in recent times. The first recorded use of the village name to refer to an actual person (Jollan de Duggleby) occurred in a 12th Century will. One branch of the Dugglebys have remained in Beswick as tenant farmers for over 400 years - and are still there to this day! Two other main branches have also been identified, but sadly Ellen has only managed to trace her own family back to her 3x great-grandfather, where she is stuck as to which line to attribute her relatives too as the record is ambiguous - maybe one day she will be able to clear this mystery up…
Although mostly farming families, many Dugglebys have also served (and sometimes given their lives) in all branches of the military during various wars. The Dugglebys are also quite an adventurous lot. Some have emigrated in very early times (and done well) to America, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, and two were even transported to Australia (for petty 'crimes' - such as poverty - as was often the custom at that time)! This has enabled Ellen to get in contact with previously unknown relatives (and always very nice people) all over the world. Some of these people also became bitten by the bug and helped her to do further research in their own countries (or prompted them to visit the UK), thus further expanding her already detailed range and depth of knowledge into the Dugglebys. [Such a task would be almost impossible with a more common surname such as Smith or Jones.]…


 Catherine Duggleby 1798-1872 (by Bonny McLeod)
Catherine Duggleby, daughter and second child of John Duggleby and Sarah Stephenson, was born November 10, 1798 and baptized November 19, 1798 in Beswick Church, Beswick Village, East Riding of Yorkshire, England. She was born during the reign of George III, known for his dull and dutiful monogamy.  Nothing at all like his sons who produced fifty-seven grand children for him, fifty-six of them bastards. Catherine died September 21, 1872 in Beswick and was buried September 23, 1872. Her death certificate states that she died of Dropsy in the presence of her husband, Thomas Dales.  She is buried next to Thomas in Beswick churchyard. The inscription on the headstone reads; "In Memory of CATHERINE DALES who died September 23rd 1872 aged 74 years. Also THOMAS DALES who died Sept 21st 1884 aged 78 years". She died during the reign of Queen Victoria, who reigned longer than any other British monarch. Victoria was known as rigid, repressed, and never a particularly cozy mum.
I suspect Catherine had a very interesting life. The record of her baptism in Beswick Parish Church register gives no clue to the life she had, but other documents lead me to believe she was a free thinker for her time and rather liberal in her beliefs, as she did not seem to follow family traditions nor religious conventions of the time.
Her father died October 21, 1818. In his will he left Catherine 500 pounds and two featherbeds with bolsters and pillows. On December 26, 1818 she married her cousin, William Dalby Jr. in Beswick Church. He was the son of William Dalby Senior and her aunt, Mary Duggleby. The Beswick Parish Register states; William Dalby, farmer of Hutton Cranswick and Catherine Duggleby of this parish by license and consent of parents, married December 26, 1818.  Witnesses were Garton Horsley and Sarah Duggleby. The York marriage bond states; William Dalby, 25, of Hutton Cranswick to Catherine Duggleby, 20, of Beswick. The marriage bond is dated December 19, 1818 in Beswick. Catherine was under age. I'm sure the family was still in mourning at the time, but this marriage was a necessity and time was of the essence. I believe this is what us Americans would call a "shotgun wedding", as their first child was baptized five months later.
The children of this marriage are as follows:
Sarah Dalby baptized May 21, 1819, Lockington, Yorkshire, England (this is our ancestor - JK)
Duggleby Dalby baptized May 18, 1821 Lockington, Yorkshire, England
Mary Dalby baptized May 29, 1824 Lockington, Yorkshire, England
William (John) Dalby baptized January 24, 1827, Kilnwick, Yorkshire England
These children can be followed through various census, marriage and death records.
 William Dalby Jr. died April 25, 1825. The bulk of his estate went to his wife, Catherine.  The trustees were Thomas Duggleby of Beswick, William Stephenson Duggleby (Catherine's brother) of Beswick and his brother, John Dalby. Although the interest from various sums of monies was designated to Catherine and the children directly, she had no control over these funds and properties.  The will also states 'that if Catherine should be pregnant at the time of his death', a share of the estate, equal to the shares of the other children named, would go to this unborn child. He evidently suspected Catherine was pregnant with their fourth child, William (John). The will is dated April 12, 1825.
This fourth child, William (John) was not baptized until January 24, 1827. Twenty-one months after William Dalby Junior's death. The Kilnwick Parish Register shows the name William had been crossed out and the name John had been inserted.  The entry states; "Jan'y 24th 1827 John son of Catherine Dalby, widow." It would have been customary for this child to be named after his father, but Catherine evidently had other ideas. The Bishop's Transcript however, still shows the entry as William. Was he the son of William Dalby Junior, or the son of another man? We'll never know because his actual birth date is unknown.
(the author Boony McLeod is a Dales descendant -JK) Catherine married Thomas Dales at All Saints Church in Sculcoates, Yorkshire on December 16, 1835.  Witnesses were Francis Fentam and John Bradbury. The marriage entry states Thomas was of this parish, while Catherine was from the parish of Beswick. Did the Duggleby family approve of this marriage? Probably not.  Marriages usually took place in the bride's parish, but this one took place in the groom's parish and there doesn't appear to be a Duggleby present at the wedding. The two witnesses appear on many other marriage records in this church and are probably folks that work for the church or live nearby. I think we can assume they were not related to, or personal friends of the bride and groom.
Thomas Dales was born in Atwick and baptized November 17, 1805 in St. Lawrence's church, the son of John Dales and Mary Binnnington. John and Mary's families were both originally from Beswick; in fact they were married in Beswick church with John Duggleby and Thomas Binnington as witnesses. The death certificates and parish records of John and Mary Dales show both of them died in Beswick and are buried in Kilnwick Churchyard.  Thomas' father appears in Beswick tax records in 1817 and for several years hence, renting only small parcels of farmland. Thomas was probably not considered an appropriate match for Catherine. (Catherine's family had a largish estate at Beswick)
The children of Thomas and Catherine are:
William Dales, born June 15th, 1838 in Beswick, baptized June 17, 1838 in Beswick, and died July 20th 1886 in Beverly.
Philip Dales, Born June 21, 1844 in Beswick, baptized June 30, 1844 in Kilnwick, and died January 8, 1920 in Ingersoll, Ontario, Canada.
 The birth certificate of William Dales states Thomas Dales, father, and Catherine Dales (formerly Duggleby), mother.  Thomas is shown as a Grocer in Beswick at the time of this baptism. Catherine signed both of her marriage records and witnessed several marriages in Beswick. Although we know she was literate, the birth certificate shows X (her mark).  I don't think Catherine was happy with the child, William. According to all census records following, William was an imbecile from birth. I have found no other record of mental illness in either family and I suspect this was the result of a difficult birth. William appears in Beswick on every census through 1881. He is shown as an imbecile but working as a farm laborer. His death certificate, dated July 15, 1886 shows he died in the workhouse in Beverly. It states he was formerly a farm laborer in Beswick and died of Anemia. His father died in 1884 and I suspect he was moved to the workhouse at that time.
(the article continues with the Dales family history)

Barmby pictures Tina Barmby sent me pictures of some pages of her scrapbook and jean Martin had the picture of Violet. Thomas Barmby and Jane Coultas had children Violet, John Robert, Thomas, Charles, Frederick, James Coultas, Jesse, Mary and Sarah.
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John and his farm
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Thomas              Frederick
barmby
Charles
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Fred's family
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James Coultas
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Jesse
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Mary
barmby



   Violet

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Mom's picture of Walter Barmby with his cousins, the daughters of Violet. What a family resemblance!


Duggleby DNA project results
Ellen Reid has commissioned a DNA investigation of Dugglebys (of Y chromosomes of males with the Duggleby surname). The results are that there are two families:

Dugglebys whose oldest common ancestor is John Duggleby 1638-1714 are genetically related (this is all Dugglebys with ancestors from Beswick, the majority, and the ones who are among our Barmby ancestors).
Dugglebys whose oldest common ancestor is Thomas Duggleby 1780-1846 are not genetically related to the Beswick line.
The two groups even belong to different haplogroups. This means they came from different populations living in Europe 12000 years ago and who traveled to England by totally different historical routes.
This does not mean that the two groups are not related through a female line – they may or may not be as only the Y chromosome was tested.

Yorkshire Wolds Gallery

On our drive through Yorkshire in Nov 2009 we stopped for coffee at a little coffee shop on the B1249. The place was much more than we expected, being on such a small road and away from any town. It was a lovely coffee shop, an art gallery with some stunning pieces and a garden. You could notice right away that it had been created with wheelchair access a top priority. We didn't see it but the place also has studios and art teaching facilities. How did such a place come to be on this little road.
woldsIt seems that the Willerby Wold Farm has been owned by the Suttons for three generations. Ginny Sutton took some of the farm buildings that were no longer needed for the farm, renovated and added to them to create the complex.
One of the artists that is featured is Ian Mitchell. I bought one of his landscapes as a small print, Yorkshire Wolds – Millington Pastures. The scan below doesn't do it justice. The landscapes do really catch the look of the coast and wolds in the area of Boynton and Thwing.
If you are in the area, give the place a try:
The Yorkshire Wolds Gallery is located on the B1249, 8.8 miles south west of Scarborough, 34.7 miles east of York and 34.1 miles north of Hull. The entrance to the Gallery is off the B1249, between Staxton to the North and Foxholes to the South.

Baby farming at Driffield The following are from the Driffield Times newspaper in 1895. I believe this case was a turning point for ending the worst abuses of 'baby farming'. The Barmby and Coultas in the story are not our direct ancestors but probably relations.

January 12, 1895
BABY FARMING AT DRIFFIELD
A WOMAN SEVERELY CENSURED
The adjourned inquest on the body of Sydney Barmby, aged four months, the illegitimate child of Mary Barmby, a single woman employed by Mr R. Kirby, farmer, Cranswick Common, near Driffield, was resumed at the White Swan Inn, Hunmanby, on Friday, before Mr J.M. Jennings. Inspector Nye watched the proceedings for the NSPCC. The evidence given a week ago showed that the deceased child had been under the care of Mrs Scaife, of Forden, near Hunmanby, since December 1st, and that it died a week after she received it from Mrs Stagg in October and the mother saw it twice previous to its removal to Mrs Scaife’s house. It was not thriving then and she told Mrs Stagg to send for a doctor if it did not improve. Dr Heard, of Hunmanby, had made a post mortem examination. The child weighed 5 ½lbs, whereas it should have weighed from 16lbs to 18lbs.
Dr J.R. Keith, of Driffield, was the first witness called on Friday. He said he saw the deceased child on December 13th at Mrs Scaife’s house and it was in a very emaciated condition. There was no disease, but it was not being properly fed. On the following day he was told the deceased had been vomiting and he gave Mrs Scaife some medicine and a day later, she told him it was better. A child four months old should weigh 14lb or 15lb. He considered the emaciation was due to the child’s treatment previous to Mrs Scaife having him. He had attended another nurse child at Mrs Stagg’s.
The Coroner asked Dr Keith to talk the case over with Dr Heard, and the jury would be glad to hear any results they arrive at. Later in the day, Dr Keith said he agreed with Dr Heard’s deductions from the post mortem examination.
Mary Stagg, wife of Uriah Stagg, Middle street North, Driffield, said she received the deceased on October 2nd though a Mrs Turner. She (Mrs Stagg) had advertised for a nurse child in March. When she received the deceased he was suffering from thrush, was in a raw state and vomited constantly.
The Coroner: Did you send for a doctor? – No sir, I didn’t.
Why not? – I hadn’t the authority, sir, and I had had children of my own worse and had brought them out.
Witness in reply to further questions said she gave the child some powders and kept it dry and clean, and by the end of the month the thrush seemed nearly better. She did not write and tell the mother the child was ill, as she knew.
The Coroner: The mother told us the child was quite healthy and well when you got it. Did you write and tell the mother the child was ill? – Yes, sir, but not during the first month, I don’t think.
Why not? – Because I did not see any danger.
You said the child was raw and that it vomited everything? – Yes, sir, it did. It’s mother knew.
Did the child get worse. Did it waste away? – Yes, sir, it did not get any flesh.
Did it lose flesh? – Yes, sir, about the six weeks’ end.
What did you do then? – I wrote and told his mother he was ailing and I saw her at the hirings.
What did you do then? – I asked her to send a doctor to him. She promised to come up again, and I have never seen her since.
Witness went on to say that she got port wine and cod liver oil for the child, and gave them to him up to the time when she handed him over to Mrs Scaife.
The Coroner: How did you come to give the child to Mrs Scaife? – I only arranged to take him till Martinmas.
But what made you give him to Mrs Scaife? Because she had offered to take him. And I had another reason.
Tell us it? – I had another child that was not my own and I found I had done wrong to take two.
Have not you known that for a long time? – No, sir.
Have not you found out before this that you have done wrong? You have been advertising for years and you did not know? – No, sir, I didn’t.
I am sorry to say I cannot believe you. What had the mother to do with the child being sent to Mrs Scaife? – She asked me to find a place for the child.
Did you tell the mother what condition the child was in? - She saw it the night she went away. My daughter went to see her.
Why did your daughter go to see her? – I sent her for the money that was due. It was quite right. It was earned.
Did the mother make any complaint to you as to the child’s condition? – Never, sir.
How much money did you receive for this child? – Four shillings a week.
What was Mrs Scaife to have? – The same as I had.
Who agreed to give her that? – She was to see the mother, and I was to pay her until then.
The Coroner next put several letters to the witness, written for her by her daughter. In one she said, “Sydney is getting on all right. His eye does not mend very quickly.” There was another applying for the money four weeks in advance, this being dated November 28th and saying, “He is going on all right.”
The Coroner asked if it was all true, and witness replied: Not all of it.
A juror asked why the witness did not call in a doctor, when the child was so ill.
Witness replied that she did not know. She thought the mother ought to give the doctor orders to attend.
The Coroner: Yes, you thought his mother ought but you are writing and telling his mother a pack of lies about it.
The juror: Mrs Scaife got a doctor directly she got the child and you ought to have done the same, in my opinion.
The Coroner: I most certainly agree with you.
Witness: I have brought my own children up without a doctor and I could not get one without paying ready money.
Replying to another juror, witness said she fed the child on milk and cornflour. She was in bed when the mother called and could not say whether there was flour and water in the bottle. She was sure she had never done anything wrong to the child in any shape or form.
The Coroner: One answer Mrs Stagg has given I thoroughly believe. That she had great difficulty in getting a doctor to attend. (To witness): You owe money to all of the doctors, don’t you? – No, sir.
You do to most of them I should think? – We have had a great many doctors at our house.
You have a child with you now. Give me the name and address of its mother? – Mrs Robinson, 79 Holles street, Grimsby.
What does she pay you? – Eighteen shillings a month.
How old is the child? – Four months.
What state is that child in? – He is rather thin, but he is improving now. The last few days he has improved very much.
Since the inquest? – No, sir. The last few days he has seemed to get better.
How many nurse children have you had in your life? – Three, sir, altogether.
Do you mean to say that during your life you have only had three nurse children? – Only three.
A juror: You have really had no great experience? – No, sir: but I have had quite sufficient.
The Coroner, in summing up the evidence said he thought none of the jury would regret the extra trouble they had been put to in investigating this matter thoroughly. The verdict as to the cause of death could only, of course, be on the evidence, which was beyond dispute, and that was the evidence of Dr Heard. He had examined the body and told them the other day that the child died from want of proper food. The evidence of the medical men tended to show that this poor little child had been done to death. Anything more disgraceful and discreditable than the evidence of Mrs Stagg, and the way she had sworn to the facts were absolutely contradicted by her letters, he had seldom heard. If this was not a case of baby farming then he never had one. Unfortunately the criminal law he was afraid, would not reach that woman. He wished it would. The deceased child had been grossly neglected, but it was difficult, in the face of the facts and the want of any real evidence, for them to say more. In returning their verdict the jury were perfectly at liberty to express any opinion, and his remarks were not meant to be more than to guide them. He had expressed his opinion and he thought the evidence was most disgraceful and discreditable to Mrs Stagg, but unfortunately it did not go far enough to justify her committal for trial.
The jury having considered their verdict. The Coroner said they found that the child died from want of proper food and that its’ inability to keep food arose when it was with Mrs Stagg. They considered Mrs Stagg’s conduct had been disgraceful in the extreme, and only just escaped the criminal law. She left the room utterly and absolutely disgraced and as far as the jury were concerned, they considered that she was morally responsible for the death of this child. (To the jury): I think that is your verdict, gentlemen.
The jury: Yes.
The court then rose.

January 19, 1895
THE ALLEGED BABY FARMING AT DRIFFIELD
MAGISTERIAL PROCEEDINGS
At the Driffield Petty Sessions on Thursday- before Col Brooksbank (chairman), Dr Wood, Major Staveley and Mr H. Holt – Uriah and Mary Stagg, of Middle street North, Driffield, husband and wife, the former being a horse breaker, were charged with “That having the custody, charge or care of a child under 16 years, did unlawfully and wilfully neglect such child in a manner likely to cause unnecessary suffering and injury to his health.” It will be remembered that the female defendant was severely censured by a coroner’s jury at Hunmanby, who held an inquest on an emaciated child of Mary Barmby, living with Mr R. Kirby, at Cranswick Common, which was transferred by the defendant to another woman, named Scaife. The present charge was brought on the information of Inspector Nye, of the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. Mr A.D. Soulby, of Malton, appeared for the prosecution, Mr Brigham, of Driffield, appeared for the defendants.
Mary Barmby said she was a single woman at present residing at Hutton Cranswick. On the 5th September she had a male child, which she named Sidney and he was the subject of the present charge. He was a big child, and was healthy. About a month after that she handed the child to Mrs Stagg, at Cranswick. The first time they met she could not agree with Mrs Stagg as to the amount to be paid, but afterwards she consented to 4s a week. Mrs Stagg did not tell her that she had another nurse child, or she would not have it. Mrs Stagg took the child on the 2nd Oct when it was healthy. She did not see it again till 12th Nov when it was much altered and very dirty and thin. Its legs were drawn up and it was curled up on a heap. She asked to see the milk and after asking twice a bottle of milk was shown to her. She tasted it and the milk was burnt. Mrs Stagg did not tell her then that she was going to hand the child over to a Mrs Scaife and she did not know the child had gone until she was told by her cousin that Mrs Stagg had parted with the child. Cross-examined, the witness said that child was as big on the 12th November as it was on the 2nd October. It had not got any less in size. It was weaned from birth. I should call a child which weighed 5lb at birth and ordinary big child. Mrs Stagg did not tell her when she took the child that she would not be able to keep it after Martinmas. The child had just recovered from the thrush when he went to Mrs Stagg’s. She was sure he was quite better. She had fed the child on milk and corn flour, and when she could not get milk, which was bad to get at Cranswick, she fed it on corn flour and water. She had given it condensed milk, but it made the child vomit. She did not go out of Mrs Stagg’s house with her daughter to fetch a doctor. She did not know that she slipped Mrs Stagg’s daughter. She went on to the switchback when she knew her child was lying ill and there would be likely to be an inquest if it died. She did not go back that day, which was the hirings day. Mrs Scaife got the child on the 1st December and she saw it a week after. The child looked like having an inquest on it on the 12th November, and on the 30th November it looked more like having an inquest, but I did not find any fault with Mrs Stagg, nor did I get a doctor. I did not take it away, because they did not want to part with it and I did not think anybody else would take it in the state in which it then was. Re-examined: The child weighed 5 ½lb when it died.
Mary Dixon, of Cranswick, married woman, deposed that Mary Barmby was her cousin, and that the child was born at her house. The child was an exceedingly fine and large one, and was quite healthy. Afterwards, an attack of thrush came on, but it was quite better when Mrs Stagg took it away. At that time, Mrs Stagg said the child was a very fine one. On the 30th November she saw the child at Mrs Stagg’s, when it was fetched downstairs; it was very cold and its and hands were full of dirt. She raised its napkin and found its body in a shocking state; its bones were nearly through its skin. Some milk was got for the child, but when she smelt at it, it was so bad that she said it was not fit to give to a pig; she did not taste it; it was boiled in a dirty pan. She went to Mrs Stagg’s on the 6th December; she saw Annie Stagg and she asked her where the child was and was told that Mrs Scaife had it and that she lived in a bow window house in Eastgate; she found it in Paradise row. She told Mrs Stagg to get a doctor to the child, but she said she had got some medicine for it – Cross-eximined: She had not seen the mother give the child corn flour and water; there was always milk in the house.
Mrs Scaife, late of Driffield, now of Fordan, near Hunmanby, said she received the child from Mrs Stagg, who said she taken it till Martinmas. She took it on the 1st December. She got a bottle with it, an old ginger beer bottle, which with the teat was very dirty. It contained flour and water. She called at a Mrs Raines, and they broke the bottle. The child was very thin and under its armpits it was dirty and blistered. Its hands were stuck together with dirty and sores; she washed the hands and when she got the dirt off she found they were raw. The feet and thighs were raw too, and dirty in the creases. The posterior and the lower part of the body was sore and dirty. After she received the child she called in Dr Keith. She left Driffield on the 19th December and after she got to Fordan the child became worse, and she called in Dr Heard, who ordered her to give it a teaspoonful of brandy in a cup of new milk, which she gave it. cross-examined: Mrs Stagg told her if she went down on the 12th November she would see the mother. She went, but she did not see the mother although she knew she was there. The child was brought to me on the 1st December and died on the 23rd. She did not make any remark to Mrs Stagg about the condition of the child when she took it. When she took the child to Fordan it was in a perambulator, well wrapped up and covered with a wagon sheet in an open wagon.
Margaret Ann Raines, of Driffield, married woman, said she remembered the last witness coming to her house with the child. She took hold of it. The bottle was not clean, it did not contain milk, but something muddy. We smashed the bottle. The child looked as if it had been hungered to death, and its hands looked to be “mortified.” The child generally was dirty, and smelt very faint for want of washing.
John Addy, hawker, Westgate, Driffield, said he went to Stagg’s last November, when he saw two children. I then said I would not have such a child as nurse child for £5, it was enough to get a man six months. Stagg said the child had improved since he got it. One child was feeding out of an ordinary bottle and the other was a ginger beer bottle. Cross-examined: Stagg was nursing a child and was kind to it. The child in question was laid on the floor on some clothes.
Jane Coultas, married woman, Cranswick, said she acted as mid-wife at the birth of Barmby’s child. The child was a very fine one and was healthy. The child seemed to improve as long as it was at Mrs Dixon’s. The child was a very fine, fat, healthful baby as used to be born, and was healthy when Mrs Stagg got it. cross-examined: It had a little thrush when it went away.
Dr Keith, of Driffield, said he was called in to see the child by Mrs Scaife, on the 12th December. It was very much emaciated, owing to long standing ill-treatment. He had shortly before attended the child at Mrs Stagg’s, but not this one. The child in question had not been sufficiently fed. Cross-Examined: He attributed the emaciated state to ill-feeding. It was possible to starve a child by giving it too much food of an improper kind.
Dr Heard, of Hunmanby, deposed to being called in to see the child by Mrs Scaife, and also to making a post mortem examination after death. All the organs were healthy; he attributed death to malnutrition; the intestines were empty; he thought the malnutrition was of old standing; the child should have weighed 14lb or 16lb. Cross-examined: Malnutrition meant improper feeding, and it might result from over-feeding.
Chas Nye, of Scarborough, Inspector of the NSPCC, said on the 1st January, he went to Stagg’s house and saw both defendants. Mrs Stagg said she would be pleased to tell him anything. She said she took nurse children because her husband was out of work and he had been out of work all the time she had this child to nurse. Witness was being examined as to the proceedings at the inquest, but Mr Brigham objected and the Bench concurring, the case for the prosecution closed.
After a short interval, Mr Brigham opened the case for the defence, and contended that Uriah Stagg did not come within the provisions of the Act, in as much as he had never had charge of the child, which was committed to Mrs Stagg’s care.
Mr Soulby upheld Mr Brigham’s contention, and dismissed the charge against Uriah Stagg.
Mr Brigham said no evidence had been given as to anything actually done by Mrs Stagg to the child. They had no evidence of one single act of either cruelty or neglect, except inferentially. He submitted that instead of underfeeding, Mrs Stagg overfed the child – (laughter) – and had thereby caused malnutrition.
Mary Stagg, the wife of Uriah Stagg, of Driffield, the defendant, said she ultimately agreed to take the child for 4s per week. When she first saw it, the mother asked her to find a place for the child if she could not take it. on the 22nd September she saw the child first at Cranswick. He was an ordinary child with a sore eye. On the 2nd October she fetched the child when he was not looking so well, and also had the thrush. On this occasion the mother changed the child’s napkin. She said to the mother that she wished to see it and she replied that she had rather not because if she saw it she would perhaps not take the child. She said she had given the child corn flour and water, and that on the previous Thursday she had given it some condensed milk, which made it vomit. The vomiting continued for six weeks whilst she had it. she got medicine from the chemist’s for him, and gave him Gunne’s powders, and then gave him port wine, which saved the child’s life. She also gave him Scott’s emulsion. The mother came to her house on he 12th November, the Driffield hirings, when the mother said she thought the child would not live. She said the mother had better get a doctor, and she mentioned Dr Bell. Witness asked the mother to see Dr Bell. She did so because she had sent on the Wednesday and Saturday and Dr Bell had not attended. She said she would see Dr Bell and went out with her daughter presumably to fetch the doctor, but she had never seen her since, until she saw her in court. The mother came in Martinmas week and during the time she was in her (witness) house, she sent for Mrs Scaife. She handed the child over to Mrs Scaife because her time was out, she having arranged to take it till Martinmas. She fed the child the first month on condensed milk and then with thick corn flour twice a day with a spoon. He always appeared hungry. He did not appear to be ill or suffering, and she could not say whether he appeared to get better or worse. They had two pints of milk a day. Cross-examined: She had advertised for nurse children, but she had never had more than three. Cross-examined: All that had been said by Mrs Scaife and Mrs Raines about the child being dirty and raw was absolutely untrue. The child had four three-pennyworth of port wine; she sent twice to Dr Keith before he would attend another child.
Annie E. Stagg, daughter of defendant, said her mother fed the child on corn flour and milk. She was sent by her mother to Dr Bell’s on two occasions, and asked if he would come to Mrs Stagg’s to a baby. She went with the mother of the child on the 12th November to get a doctor, but lost her and afterwards saw her on the steam horses. The child was not dirty and there were no sores upon it, and if anyone said there was they were not speaking the truth. When Mrs Dixon came to see the child she (witness) told her that her mother had the child out. That was no true.
Mary Ellen Morrill, domestic servant, Watton, said she was at Mrs Stagg’s early in October and had visited her nearly weekly up to the present time and had seen the child from time to time. When she last saw it on October 11th, it was very thin. It was fed on soaked bread and milk. The child was always clean and well done to.
After a brief consultation, the Chairman said the Bench had no doubt whatever but that the defendant, Mary Stagg, had been guilty of the charge preferred against her and that the child had been ill-treated in a most gross and cruel manner. She would have to pay £5, including costs, or go to prison for two months.
On the application of Mr Brigham, defendant was allowed a fortnight to pay the money.
The court was crowded during the hearing of the case, which lasted nearly four hours.

Bridlington
Here is some material published by Bridlington:

History of Bridlington
St John of Bridlington was born in the year 1320 and died in 1379. The great monastery in which he lived and died was looted in the persecution of 1537 and in the destruction of the monastery the tomb and shrine of St John of Bridlington was publicly burnt in the Market Place of the Old Town.
St John of Bridlington was born in the village of Thwing on the Yorkshire Wolds, about nine miles west of Bridlington.
The village church of Thwing still has the font in which he was christened and a modern memorial window shows him in his monastic habit.
After the canonisation of John of Thwing, Prior of Bridlington, took place on September 24, 1401, devotion to St John flourished swiftly and was publicised in no uncertain manner.
He was the last saint so to be honoured before the reformation. St John stood out in his sanctity and his services to the town of Bridlington.
He was everybody’s friend, going himself to any in need. No cause went unnoticed and no plea for help unheeded in his selfless devotion to the needs of his people.

The Many Names of Bridlington
Bridlington is a seaside resort on the beautiful Yorkshire coast of England.
To thousands of visitors each year it is a town boasting wonderful sandy beaches and a fascinating harbour. But there is a lot more to the area ...
Many of Bridlington’s older residents still often refer to their town as Burlington or Bolli’ton. Why? There is no single definitive answer and there is much debate as to the origins of the name Bridlington itself.
The Norman Domesday Book scribes used the name Bretlinton in their accounts of the town in 1086.
And it also occurs in ancient documents as Brilinton in 1135, Brillintona in 1138, Berlington, Breddelinton in 1203, Brellington and, in a patent granted in 1315, Bolington. It was referred to as Burling in 1651.
The three Bs of the town’s Coat of Arms are thought to be the repitition of the initial B of Bridlington. Its threefold nature is a sign of the doctrine of the Trinity.
Bolington became the more modern Burlington, which is what Bridlington is still often called by older locals.
A suggested connection between the two names Burlington and Bridlington is that in many old Saxon words the letter “r” and its accompanying vowels were often transposed, so Bridlington would assume the form of Birdlington or Burdlington – and this by the ommission of the “d” became Burlington.
In the opinion of eminent Saxon scholar Thomas Wright the name, like many others where “ing” signifies children or descendants, is a relic of Saxon clanship.
The Bridlings would be the sons of or decsendants of Bridla, which according to Wright’s argument was probably the name of the Saxon chieftan who established a settlement here.
Another theory is that the name is derived from the Nose word “berlingr” – meaning smooth water.
That would be applicable to the bay which affords better shelter and achorage for vessels than any other part of the coast.
And yet another theory is that it was named after the home of an Angle chieftan called Bretel.
When Angle warriors ran their boats ashore and scrambled up the low-lying cliffs of the east coast, they forced their way inland, slaying the native Brigantes and claiming the area for themselves.
One of the invaders was so charmed with the view of the bay he decided to go no further. His name was Bretel.
A short distance from the cliffs a clearing was made and round it the rough branches of trees were driven into the ground to make a tun, or enclosure. It was “Bretel’s tun” – the beginning of Bridlington ...

The Origins of Bridlington
Archaeological evidence proves people have been living in the area for more than 3,000 years. Flint arrowheads have been excavated and the skeleton of a woman, bearing the traces of a bronze armlet dating from 2,000 years ago, were found in the town centre. From earliest times the area was an important focus.
Chariot burials, tumuli and entrenchments on the nearby Yorkshire Wolds indicate important prehistoric occupation.
A Roman urn has been found and traces of Roman roads have also been uncovered in the town.
In 1933 a farmer’s plough turned up a number of Roman tiles near Rudston, a few miles from Bridlington.
They were from three mosaic pavements, the largest of which, at 20ft by 16ft, features a figure of Venus leaving her bath and holding an apple won from her admirer Paris. In the water is a merman holding a back-scratcher. There are also figures of a leopard, wounded lion, stag and bull and the surrounds consist of huntsmen - one with a spear, another holding a net and another is the image of Mercury with his winged staff.
When the Romans left the area the native Brigantes were attacked by Picts and Scots. They sought the aid of the Saxons but before long the friends became foes.
Many Angles then settled in the area.
At the village of Sewerby an important Anglian cemetery marks the landing of King Ida in 557AD
After the Angles came the seafaring Vikings and the evidence of place-names shows the significance of their influence.
Some settled at Flamborough, a few miles along the coast from Bridlington, where many of the present residents are direct descendants of the Vikings.
So strong was the Viking influence that Flamborough was often known as Little Denmark.
On the eve of the Norman invasion in 1066 Domesday Book records show the land at Bridlington was held by three Anglo-Scandinavians – Morcar, Torchil and Carle.
The most powerful, Morcar, Earl of Northumberland, rebelled against King William in 1068 but was unsuccessful and his lands were forfeited, including the manor of Bridlington.
William’s harrying of the North a year later no doubt ravaged the area but in later centuries it was to develop as an agricultural and marketing community.
About 1113 the Norman baron Walter de Gant, who by then held the manor of Bridlington, established the first Augustinian priory in the North of England.
The parish church of St Mary, now known as Bridlington Priory, is all that remains of what was, in the late Middle Ages, the largest and richest Augustinian monastery in the North of England.
When the monastery was dissolved and destroyed in 1537 by order of Henry VIII, its nave, always used as a parish church, was allowed to stand.
The development of the two settlements of Bridlington – the Old Town and Quay – was remarkable and significant; the former growing around the Priory and High Street, the latter focussed on the harbour.
The two towns remained largely separated until the 19th Century when the railway and its station came in between them and began to pull them together.
St John of Bridlington (1320-79) was one of the last English saints to be canonised, in 1401. After his death many came to worship, including Henry IV and Henry V. At the Priory a window commemorates some of these important visitors.
For years the Quay remained a small place. In 1672 it had only 120 houses while the Old Town had 232 houses.
As the Quay developed as a resort, with the town’s two beaches and harbour, it grew in importance and size.
The Old Town is still surrounded in history.
Market Place has cobbled paving and stocks outside one of the public houses.
The Crown leased the manor of Bridlington to local townspeople in 1566. By 1630, it was decided to sell it. In 1636 the Great Town Deed was drawn up between 13 feoffees (purchasers), and 187 tenants of the manor.
Many premises in the town are still owned by the Lords Feoffees, as they became known, and the body invests proceeds in town causes.
The current Bayle Museum, the former gatehouse to Bridlington Priory, is owned by the Lords Feoffees, which has been a charitable trust for more than 300 years.
Queen Henrietta Maria, wife of Charles I, famously took refuge in Bridlington during the Civil War the king was fighting against the Parliamentarians.
On a voyage back from Holland to obtain supplies, she landed in Burlington Bay in February 1642. Two days later five ships of war commanded by Parliamentarian Admiral Batten entered the bay at night and opened fire with their cannons.
In a letter to the king, the Queen wrote: “One of their ships did me the favour of flanking on the house where I slept and before I was out of bed the balls whished so loud about me that my company pressed me earnestly to go out of the house.
“So, clothed as well as in haste I could be, I went on foot to some little distance from the town of Burlington and got in the shelter of a ditch, whither before I could get, the cannon balls fell thick about us, and a servant was killed within seventy paces of me. “One dangerous ball grazed the edge of the ditch and covered us with earth and stones.”

Archaeology
Archaeological evidence proves people have been living in the area for more than 3,000 years. Flint arrowheads have been excavated and the skeleton of a woman, bearing the traces of a bronze armlet dating from 2,000 years ago, were found in the town centre. From earliest times the area was an important focus.
Chariot burials, tumuli and entrenchments on the nearby Yorkshire Wolds indicate important prehistoric occupation.
A Roman urn has been found and traces of Roman roads have also been uncovered in the town.
In 1933 a farmer's plough turned up a number of Roman tiles near Rudston, a few miles from Bridlington.
They were from three mosaic pavements, the largest of which, at 20ft by 16ft, features a figure of Venus leaving her bath and holding an apple won from her admirer Paris. In the water is a merman holding a back-scratcher. There are also figures of a leopard, wounded lion, stag and bull and the surrounds consist of huntsmen - one with a spear, another holding a net and another is the image of Mercury with his winged staff.
When the Romans left the area the native Brigantes were attacked by Picts and Scots. They sought the aid of the Saxons but before long the friends became foes.
Many Angles then settled in the area.
At the village of Sewerby an important Anglian cemetery marks the landing of King Ida in 557AD
After the Angles came the seafaring Vikings and the evidence of place-names shows the significance of their influence.
Some settled at Flamborough, a few miles along the coast from Bridlington, where many of the present residents are direct descendants of the Vikings.
So strong was the Viking influence that Flamborough was often known as Little Denmark.
On the eve of the Norman invasion in 1066 Domesday Book records show the land at Bridlington was held by three Anglo-Scandinavians: Morcar, Torchil and Carle.
The most powerful, Morcar, Earl of Northumberland, rebelled against King William in 1068 but was unsuccessful and his lands were forfeited, including the manor of Bridlington.
William's harrying of the North a year later no doubt ravaged the area but in later centuries it was to develop as an agricultural and marketing community.
About 1113 the Norman baron Walter de Gant, who by then held the manor of Bridlington, established the first Augustinian priory in the North of England.
The parish church of St Mary, now known as Bridlington Priory, is all that remains of what was, in the late Middle Ages, the largest and richest Augustinian monastery in the North of England.
When the monastery was dissolved and destroyed in 1537 by order of Henry VIII, its nave, always used as a parish church, was allowed to stand.
The development of the two settlements of Bridlington (the Old Town and Quay) was remarkable and significant; the former growing around the Priory and High Street, the latter focussed on the harbour.
The two towns remained largely separated until the 19th Century when the railway and its station came in between them and began to pull them together.
St John of Bridlington (1320-79) was one of the last English saints to be canonised, in 1401. After his death many came to worship, including Henry IV and Henry V.


Star Carr

Along the northeast coast, between Bridlington and Scarborough, near the home of our first recorded Barmby, is the Star Carr site. Here there is the oldest house in Britain and the oldest surviving example of carpentry in Europe.
The house was round, about 3.5 metres in diameter, and on the edge of a lake 11,000 years ago. There is evidence of a circle of timber posts around a sunken floor area. The occupants were hunter gatherers but more settled and sophisticated then we usually associate with this way of life. They would have been some of the first settlers coming across a land bridge from Europe immediately after the glaciers retreated. Diggers also found things like a boat paddle, arrow tips, masks, remains of deer, boar, elk. Domesticated dogs seem to have been part of the settlement. "We used to think they moved around a lot and left little evidence. Now we know they built large structures and were very attached to particular places in the landscape."
The site is not fulled excavated and time is a problem. The lake turned to peat in prehistory and the waterlogged peat has preserved many artifacts, but the peat is drying and the unique and important site is deteriorating.


Hull Bombing
Why am I talking about Hull in the Barmby family section? Hull is the largest city in the East Riding of Yorkshire – the local 'big smoke' for all our Barmby ancestors. There would have been Barmbys, Coultases and all the other family surnames among the people of Hull. It is always called Hull although its official name is Kingston upon Hull. It is currently in the news because of the anniversary of a little known pair of bombing raids in May 1941.
(It also figures in Harry's roots for it was a stop on the eastern European immigration route – 4 million or more people took this route leaving Europe in the late 1800s and early 1900s mainly from Scandinavia, Germany and Eastern Europe. “Most of the emigrants entering Hull on the Wilson line traveled via the Paragon Railway Station to Liverpool. The train tickets were part of a package that included the steamship ticket to Hull, a train ticket to Liverpool and then the steamship ticket to their final destination - mainly America. Sometimes so many emigrants arrived at one time that there would be up to 17 carriages being pulled by one steam engine.” Harry's mother took this route out of Poland on a ticket package (Lvov - Montreal) sent to her from her sister in Canada.)
hull Back to the bombing. Except for London, more bombs fell on Hull then on any other British city in WW2. There were 72 raids starting 19 June 1940, one of the first of the war, and ending 17 Mar 1945, the very, very last of the war. Besides these raids on Hull proper, the German pilots flew home from raids further inland on the industrial cities of the north over Hull to find the wide Humber and dropped any bombs they had left on the city. So when Sheffield, Leeds, Manchester, Liverpool etc. were bombed, a few bombs were saved for Hull. During the war 1185 people were killed by bombs and about 3 times as many injured. 95% of the houses were damaged or destroyed leaving 152,000 people homeless for some period of time. Many families were bombed out twice or three times. The city center was all but gone by the end of the war.
Why Hull? It was a busy important port and industrial city within easy reach of the continent and easy to find without radio guidance. Pilots just needed to find the Humber, a prominent feature of the coast, and follow it inland.
The particular raids of May 8 and 9 1941, 70 years ago, were the most heavy of the war. 358 high explosive and 29115 incendiary bombs fell on the city over the two days. 420 people were killed. Power, telephone and gas utilities were very badly damaged and not re-established for many weeks.
After these and all the other raids, Hull was never identified in the news. 'A northeastern town', 'northern coastal town' or some phrase like that was used. Even when the King and Queen visited, the newsreels were only shown locally. Thus many British people knew little or nothing of what Hull endured. Time is late and so historians are gathering accounts, photos etc. to document the Hull blitz and what is was like to be bombed for 5 years.

Barmby Moor
Our Barmby ancestors probably came from Barmby Moor and took that name when they left the village. This must have been prior to about 1580 for we have an ancestor born in Boynton in 1580. And they left after the 1100s because the village was spelt Barnby until the 1200s. There are many reasons for someone to leave their ancestral home village and the most common was that they lost their common-law rights to use land in the Enclosures and became landless labourers. But the enclosures in the Barmby Moor area did not happen until the Act of 1777. An earlier mass disruption was the Harrying of the North when the conquering Normans laid waste from and Humber to the Tees. 100,000 people died and many, many more were displaced. But this is too early to be the cause of our ancestors running for the coast, as it happened in 1070. Something more personal may have caused the move away from Barmby Moor or perhaps disruptions cause a move (black death, go to fight in France or the Crusades). The village itself is interesting. There are pictures of my visit to the village here.

Barmby Moor Farmland
This area is largely arable. There are few small rectilinear blocks of woodland scattered across the area. The village of Barmby Moor to the west of Pocklington probably originated as a Scandinavian settlement. The name is from Barne's farm (the Danish form of name of owner follow by 'by'). There is a medieval moated site in the centre of the village. The church was largely rebuilt in the early 1850s but the 15th century tower and stone spire were retained. Enclosure of open fields and common land largely took place in the late 18th century and that field pattern remains today. However, there is an area of rectilinear Roman fields, now visible only as a crop mark, designated as a scheduled monument west of the village. Overall fields are medium in size and this reflects the scale of the landscape.

The Barmby Manor
Ulf, the son of Torall a prince of Deira, gave Barmby to York Minster before 1066, and 7 carucates (carucate = plowland for an 8 oxen team, approx 100 acres) and 2 bovates (bovate = plowland for 1 ox, approx 15 acres) there were held by the archbishop in 1086, but by 1198 was granted to John le Poer for the service of providing an archer to defend York castle.
The estate was assigned to the prebend of Barmby, presumably at its formation before 1233. (A prebemapnd is property used to support local clergy ie the clergy of the parish of Barmby) The prebendal manor of BARMBY UPON THE MOOR was apparently in hand (the supported clergy lived there) in 1479 and for much of the 16th century, but it was usually let from the 1570s.The manor passed to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners in 1847 upon a voidance of the prebend and was sold to Arthur Duncombe in 1853, along with 149 acres of land.
Ermine Street
A Roman road passes through Barmby Moor (green on map). Ermine Street started in York (Eboracum), an important Roman local capital city. Travelling on the A1079 from York to Market Weighton, you are on Ermine Street. It goes to the Humber where there was a boat crossing and on to Lincoln (Lindum) along what is now the A15. It is follows the B6403 and then the A1/A1(M) to Huntingdon, then the A1198 and A10 to London. This road connected to two most important cities in Roman Britain, London and York.



Ringworks
This is the only description I can find of the ring at Thwing:

ring “They show a marked topographical preference for conical hilltops or edges of spurs and although only a small number are currently known – perhaps as few as 10 – it is likely that others have been incorrectly identified as other sorts of monuments. They date exclusively from the 11th to 8th centuries BC and have a restricted distribution, clustering on the eastern side of the country close to major riverine networks such as the Thames. The defining characteristic is a precisely circular boundary comprising bank and external ditch. Scale does vary dramatically, though, with Mucking North Ring, Essex, enclosing an area of only 40 m in diameter; Thrapston, Northamptonshire, in contrast, has an internal diameter of over 120m. The majority of sites, however, enclose less than 1 hectare in area. Excavation reveals that the associated ditches are ringsignificant features, wide, straight-sided and flat-bottomed to a depth of nearly 4m at Thwing, East Riding of Yorkshire. The associated ramparts, again on the basis of excavation at Springfield Lyons, Essex, were substantial structures, vertically-faced and flat topped soil and turf banks, perhaps 3m high and supported by timber framework.
A number of the ringworks are furnished with multiple entrances. The boundary at Springfield Lyons, for example, was broken by five gaps but only one of these appears to have been used as the main entrance as it was embellished by a monumental timber gateway. The interior of the enclosures typically hosted a small number of circular post-built structures occasionally dominated by one large house, the entrance of which faced the main approach through the ramparts. This pattern is seen at all of the excavated sites; the house at Springfield Lyons was placed centrally and had a diameter of nearly 10m, whilst those at Thwing and at Mucking North Ring were slightly larger at 12m. Other notable internal features included addition storage structures and lines of fencing or stockades: at Mucking North Ring, the timber barrier was clearly designed to act as a 'screen' for the houses.
Artifacts are plentiful at ringworks and often include items that can be regarded as being of a special nature including fine pottery and metalwork. There is clear evidence from a number of sites, such as Mucking North Ring, Springfield Lyons, Carshalton in Surrey and Highstead in Kent to suggest that bronze metalworking took place at or near the enclosure and, frequently, there are dumps of broken pottery, flint and stone in the ditch terminal close to the entrances. These are rarely discovered activities and have led many to suggest that ringworks were high status centres.”



Wharram Percy
Near the road from Driffield to Malton about 2 miles from Duggleby is Wharram Percy, a famous deserted medieval village.
The place was lived in since pre-hisory, mentioned in Doomsday, it survived the black death in the 1300s, was depopulated by force in the late 1400s. It was identified in 1948 and researched for the next 40 years. There is a ruined church, a village pond, and the outlines of the destroyed homes.
The Hilton family wished to use the land for sheep pasture and therefore evicted the villagers with the last four families removed between 1488 and 1506. This seems to be a forerunner of the enclosures.
Along the edge of the western terrace of Wharram Percy stood a row of peasant longhouses, the typical form of rural house for much of the medieval period. Each long-house was divided into two areas, separated by a cross-passage in the middle of the house. People lived at one end, with a main room containing an open hearth, and often a smaller room, for sleeping. At the other end of the longhouse
longhousewas a byre for livestock. The excavations revealed items associated with daily living, including pottery, metal dress-fasteners, and even locks and keys. The houses lay within recognisable plots, defined by banks and ditches. Each plot contained a single farmstead for a peasant family. Some of the earthworks mark the lines of buried chalk walls for the buildings. Through excavation and surface survey, it has been shown that the sizes of the farmsteads remained fairly constant, but the buildings inside them were repeatedly rebuilt, often on different alignments. Excavation also showed that the main buildings, the longhouses, were better-constructed than had been expected, and that their roofs rested not on the thin chalk outer walls but on wooden 'cruck' frames standing inside them.
St. Martin's was a typical parish church and after the desertion was used by inhabitants of Thixendale until after the war. Since then it has taken much damage and is now roofless. It started as a small stone church in the 1000s that was built on the site of an earlier timber church. It was enlarged from time to time until the disappearance of the village.
In the 1770s agriculture took another change, sheep-farming reverted to arable farming. The landlord of the site 'improved' Wharram Percy farm. As part of this he build stone and brick buildings: a farm house, houses for labourers, barns and a granary. This farm was later destroyed and a replacement built a mile away.
There was a mill on the site in medieval times powered by the Wharram river with a mill pond, dams and a mill race.There were two manor houses: the south manor was the home of the Chamberlain family until the mid 1200s. At that time the site passed to the Percy family who demolished the south manor and built the north manor. That manor was abandoned and demolished in the early 1400s.

Here is an article by Dawn Copeman:
Wharram Percy was founded in the Bronze Age, occupied and remodeled by the Romans and lived in by Vikings, Anglo-Saxons and Normans. Yet, at some point in the 16th century, it was suddenly abandoned. And ever since the site was discovered in 1851 by Captain Bayly, who was surveying the area for the Ordnance Survey, people have been wondering why. aerial
Not that Wharram Percy is unique in being abandoned. Approximately 3000 medieval villages across England were deserted between the 11th and 18th centuries, including Purley Parva in Berkshire, Gainsthorpe in Lincolnshire and High Worsall in Yorkshire (which was excavated on British television in 1998). Wharram Percy is unique, however, in the amount of archaeological excavation it has undergone, work which began in 1952 and is still going on today.
At first it was thought that Wharram Percy might have been abandoned as a result of the Viking raids that had already laid waste to a third of the villages in Yorkshire, as recorded in the Doomsday book of 1086. But then archaeologists realised that the site had been in use long after this.
Maybe it was destroyed during William the Conqueror's Harrying of the North? But again, it was proved by physical and documentary evidence that the village escaped the Harrying unharmed.
A village nearby had been raided by the Scottish, did that fate befall Wharram Percy? No, there's no evidence of it.
Perhaps it was the Black Death, then? Although the plague did kill several inhabitants of the village, including the priest and lord of the manor, the majority of the population survived.
So why was this village at the bottom of a valley deserted? Famine? Flooding? No. The reason was sheep. As Sir Thomas More wrote in Utopia, "Your sheep which are usually so tame and so cheaply fed, begin now, according to report, to be so greedy and wild that they devour human beings themselves and devastate and depopulate fields, houses, and towns."
Not that sheep were really eating humans, but you can see More's point. By the 15th century, sheep farming had become far more profitable than arable farming, so the lord of the manor turned more of his land into pasture land, leaving less for the farming of crops. This in turn led to less work and less food for the villagers of Wharram Percy, so that they were forced to leave the village to find work and food elsewhere. In the end, documentary evidence shows that there were just four homes left occupied when the landowner, Baron Hilton, evicted the few remaining villagers around 1517. Archaeologists think that the last inhabitant of Wharram Percy was either a vagrant or an inhabitant who refused to move out, who was killed when a dilapidated house collapsed on him whilst he slept.


Woldgate
mapNot long ago there was an act of vandalism – someone brought down the 8 foot stump that is front and center in some Hockney pictures and that he identified as his 'totem'. Hockney lives and works in the area around Bridlington. This is the area where we first pick up the Barmby family name in the village of Boynton.
Hockney paints the wolds in some very particular places. The stump is along Woldgate which is an ancient Roman road from Bridlington towards Kilham. This is just across a stream from Boynton as the crow flies. Boynton is to the north and the other place where early Barmbys lived, Agnes Burton is south of this road. The woodlands around these parts are old and probably much like the woods that these Barmbys would have known.
The stump was especially known from the painting called Winter Timber. Hockney asked the landowner to let it stand and so it was left alone. But someone cut it down in the night. The landowner reported the incident to the police. The Yorkshire tourist body has condemned the act as they have the stump as a feature on their official Hockney trail. Hockney has drawn the stump several times since the cutting, trying to deal with his anger.
stumpHockney came to Bridlington in 2005 with his long-term partner who has links to the northeast. He is 75 but at his age he has taken up a new and innovative art form. This new style was seen at an exhibition at the Royal Academy last January. The pictures were planned by Hockney for the size, shape and interconnection of the gallery's rooms. Many of the pictures were huge and visitors experienced a feeling of actually being in the landscape even mystically so. (I remember my surprise at the Monet water lilies which has to do with the size of the canvases which gives a very different effect than normal sized reproductions.) Hockney works with an electronic drawing tablet. This is another change in his style. The pictures in the exhibition are very large prints of the images, some a few meters high and several meters long. It is interesting that such hockneyan old man would change what he paints, how he paints and how he presents his images. The colour of the iPad palette he uses is gaudy but in the images beautiful. It seems that the old can master new tricks.





Duggleby site
There is now (again) a site dedicated to the Duggleby family, thanks to Chris Duggleby. Here is a link to it. http://chrisduggleby.com/duggleby/duggleby-family-tree-evolution-from-the-domesday-book/


1697 ride through the East Riding

From: Celia Fiennes, Through England on a Side Saddle in the Time of William and Mary (London: Field and Tuer, The Leadenhall Press, 1888) Records of a 1697 tour by Celia Fiennes – this is the part through the East Riding of Yorkshire.

We enter ye town of Hull from ye Southward over two drawbridges and gates, there is the Same Entrance in another part of  town by 2 gates and 2 drawbridges from Holderness, and so y Sea is in a very uniforme ffigure and were it ffinished is thought it would be the ffinest ffortification that Could be seen-its wall'd and pallisadoed. I walked round it, and viewed it and when I was on y wild man that they took, for so the Inscription Calls him, or y pulpet and pews on one Side with a partition of wood Carv'd, and on the other side was such another partition for y hall house as it was Called Where liv'd a Quaker w doores and Chimneys are finely Carv'd w walking on this sand twice a day at y outbuildings and gate house for weaving and Linning Cloth, haveing set up a manuffactory for Linnen w
  yee ditches are round ye town to ye Landward, and they Can by them floate ye grounds for 3 mile round wch is a good ffortification. The Garrison and plattforme wch is the ffortification to yee water, it seemes to runn a great Length and would require many Soldiers to deffend ye halfe moons and workes. In the town there is an hospitall yts Called ye Trinity house, for Seamens widdows, 30 is their Completmt , their allowance 16d pr weeke and ffewell, they have a little Chapple to it for prayers; over this building is a large roome for Cordage and sailes, where they make them and keep their Stores. In the middle of this roome there hangs a Canoe to ye Roofe of ye Roome just bigg Enough for one man to sit in, and the Effigie of a man that was taken wth it, all his Cloths Cap and a Large bag behind him where in his ffish and provision were, these were all made of ye skin of ffishes and were ye same wch he wore when taken, ye forme of his face is only added and just resemble yee bonny boate man; he was taken by Captn Baker and there are his oars and spear yt was with him -this is all written on ye boat to perpetuate ye memory of it; he would not speak any Language or word to them yt took him nor would he Eate, so in a few dayes died. There is a good large Church in Hull. You Enter a large jsle just in the Middle that runns quite aCross through the Church, and divides the body of the Church wth yee Chancell, and I observ'd there their alter stood tablewise for ye Comunion just in the middle of ye Chancell, as it was in the primitive tymes before Popery Came in. There was Severall Little monuments of marble in ye walls. Ffrom thence to Beverly againe 6 mile wch is all a flatt, thence to Brance Burton 8 mile, all likewise on a Levell wch they Call Loughs. Here we Could get no accomodation at a Publick house, it being a Sad poore thatch'd place and only 2 or 3 Sorry Alehouses, no lodgings but at yech were Sufficient people. The rooms were good old rooms being ye Lord of the mannours house- these were but tennants-but did Entertain us kindly, made two good beds. for us and also for our Servants, and good bread and Cheese, bacon and Eggs. Thence we went to Agnes-Burton 7 mile, the miles are long and so they are in most part of these Northern County's. This is the East Rideing of Yorkshire and we saw ye Session house at Beverly for this Rideing.
Agnes Burton is a Seate of Sr Griffith Boyntons, Grandson to Sr ffrancis wch married my father's Sister one of William Lord Viscount Say and Seales Daughters. It looks finely In the approach. A mile or two off we pass by another of his houses wch is newer built and very good Gardens, Called Barmstone,-we Eate some of ye good ffruite. The house is all built with Bricks and so good Bricke that at 100 years standing no one Brick is faulty; it stands on a pretty ascent. We Enter under a Gate-house built wth 4 large towers into a Court which is large, in ye middle is a Bowling green palisado'd round, and ye Coaches runns round it to the Entrance wch is by 10 stepps up to a Tarress, and thence a pav'd walke to ye house. Cut box and ffilleroy and Lawrell about ye Court. The ffront Looks very uniform with severall round buildings on each side answerring Each other with Compass windows, and ye middle is a Round building, and ye door Enters in in ye side of yt tower wch was ye old fashion in Building and is like my brother Say's house at Broughton.
Out of an Entry you Come into a very Lofty good hall, ye Screen at the Lower End (wch divides it from ye Entry) is ffinely Carv'd, the parlour and drawing roome are well proportion'd roomes, and ye wanscoate is all well Carv'd, ye moldings of yeth Staggs and all sorts of beasts, woods and some leaves and flowers and birds and angells &. There is beyond this a very good little parlour wth plaine wanscoate painted in veines like marble, dark and white Streakes. There is a very good dineing roome over this and 5 very good Chambers some well ffurnished, all very neate and Convenient wth Closetts to their own apartments and Anty roomes. There is much of ye Same ffine Carving in the dineing roome, the Chambers are all wanscoated and Carv'd, there is a noble gallery over all, with large windows on ye sides and at Each End painted very Curiously, out of wch you view the whole Country round and discover the shipps under saile though at a good distance. The Gardens are large and are Capable of being made very ffine-they now remaine in the old ffashion. There is gravell walks and grass and Close walks, there is one walke all ye Length of the Garden Called the Crooked walke, of grass well Cutt and rowled, it is indented in and out in Corners, and so is the wall wch makes you thinke you are at ye End off the walke Severall tymes before you are, by means of ye Codling hedge that is on the other side. This Leads you to a summer house that also opens to a large gravell walke that runns the breadth of ye Garden to the house ward. From Agnes Burton we went to Scarsborough 14 mile. We pass'd from this flatt to Boynton, thence ascended the wouls or high hills so Called in this County, and it prov'd misty wch made our observations to be fixed on it that the mist was thicker and more held in those high wouls as raine or mist is in thick trees, so ye mist was much more there than in ye plaine, so thick in some you Could not see the top. We descended these high wouls by a steep and hazardous precipice on one Side and ye way narrow.
Scarbrough is a very pretty Sea-port town built on the Side of a high hill. The Church Stands in the most Eminent place above all ye town and at Least 20 Steps you ascend up into ye Churchyard. The ruines of a Large Castle remaines, the Walls in Compass severall acres of ground yt feeds many beasts and milch Cows. Ye hill on wch the Castle Stands is very Steep and Severall trenches over one another, round the walls all one Side of the Castle Stands out to the sea shore a good Length. Its open to the Main ocean and to secure the harbour there is a mole or halfe moone, two, one within ye other something resembling the Cobb at Lime in Sommersetshire. The sea when the tide is in is Close up to the town and the bottom of a Ridge of hills that runns from the town 5 or 6 mile in a Compass. When its Ebb water it Leaves ye shore 400 yards all a flatt, and such good sand, as you presently walke on it without Sinking, ye Sand is so smooth and firme, and so you may walke 5 or 6 mile on the Sand round by ye ffoote of this Ridge of hills, wch is the poynt by wch all the Shipps pass that go to NewCastle or that way. I see 70 saile of shipps pass the point and so Come onward at some Distance off from the Castle, Supposed to be Colliers and their Convoys. On this Sand by the Sea shore is ye Spaw well wch people frequent, and all the diversion is yee Ebb of the tide and till its high tide and then they drink. Its something from an Iron or Steele minerall but by means of the tide flowing on it Every tyme. Especially spring tydes it Covers ye well quite-and allwayes flowes up just to it, wch Leaves a brackish and saltness wch makes it purge pretty much, but they say ye Spring is so quick that it soone Casts off ye Sea water; but in my opinion is yt the whole spring and all the Springs that Bubble up all over the sands must be agreable and of the sort of water the sea is, being so just on the sea side and so neare must be Influenc'd by ye salt water. It seems to be a pretty turbulent Sea, I was on it in a little boate but found it very rough even just in ye harbour, I suppose the Cause may be from standing so open to ye Maine. The town has abundance of Quakers in it, most of their best Lodgings were In quakers hands, they Entertain all people, soe in Private houses in the town by way of ordinary, so much a Meale and their Ale. Every one finds themselves-there are a few Inns for horses only. I was at a quakers meeteing in the town where 4 men and 2 women spoke one, after another had done, but it seem'd such a Confusion and so incoherent that it very much moved my Compassion and pitty to see their delusion and Ignorance and no less Excited my thankfullness for the Grace of God that upheld others from such Errors. I observ'd their prayers were all made on the first person and single, though before the body of people; it seems they allow not of ones being the mouth of ye Rest in prayer to God tho' it be in the publick meetings. In this town we had good accomodations and on very Reasonable terms. They drye a large ffish Like Codlings and salt them and when you dress them, water them; then they string them on wire, and so Rost them before the fire and make good sauce for them, they Eate very well and as tender as a fresh Codling and very sweete iff they were well cured when they were first taken, Else they will taste stronge.
Thence we went to Maulton 14 miles wch is a pretty large town built of Stone but poor; there is a large market place and severall great houses of gentlemens round the town. There was one Mr Paumes that marry'd a relation of mine Lord Ewers Coeheiress who is landlady of almost all ye town. She has a pretty house in the place. There is the ruins of a very great house wch belonged to ye family but they not agreeing about it Caused ye defaceing of it. She now makes use of ye roomes off yech does Employ many poor people. She supply'd me wth very good beer, for ye Inn had not the best. Thence to York 14 miles, and so to Tadcaster 8 mile, thence to Aberfford 4 miles all on a heavy bottom, their miles are long and I observe the ordinary people both in these parts of Yorkshire and in the northern parts Can scarce tell you how farre it is to the next place unless it be in the great towns, and there in their publick houses, and they tell you its very good yate Instead of Saying it is good way, and they Call their gates yates, and do not Esteem it uphill unless so steep as a house or precipice; they say its good levell gate all along when it maybe there are Severall great hills to pass, but this account did Encrease on us the nearer we Came to Darbyshire, but in Generall they Live much at home and scarce Ever go 2 or 10 mile from thence Especially the women, so may be term'd good housekeepers. To Aberford we Came by severall pretty Seates in view, we Lay at an acquaintances house Mrs Hickeringalls: thence we went to Castleton Bridge 5 mile, where was a glass house; we saw them blowing white glass and neale it in a large oven by the heate of ye ffurnace. All the Country is full of Coale and the pitts are so thick in ye roade that it is hazardous to travell for strangers. 


The Harrying of the North
In 1066 William the Conquerer won the Battle of Hastings but that did not give him the whole of England. There was resistance. Hereward the Wake for example rebelled in the Fens of East Anglia and Eadric in the wilds of Shropshire. Within three years of the Norman conquest in 1066, the northeast of England showed the strongest resistance to Norman rule under Edgar the Atheling who had a blood claim to the throne. He was helped by Danish and Scottish armies. They were defeated by the Normans and William decided that no one would ever have the nerve to do that again. In 1069-70 he sent troops east and north and they burned and unpopulated the land from York to Durham. There was not a village, a dwelling, a cow to be seen according to some reports. This is one of those sharp breaks in history – a complete discontinuity between what was before the harrying and what was after. The population starved or died of exposure and disease, or masses fled to other parts of England – leaving an empty land. When the Doomsday book was compiled in 1089, 20 years later, much of this land was still waste.
Orderic Vitalis, a monk that favoured William wrote: “The King stopped at nothing to hunt his enemies. He cut down many people and destroyed homes and land. Nowhere else had he shown such cruelty. To his shame he made no effort to control his fury and he punished the innocent with the guilty. He ordered that crops and herds, tools and food should be burned to ashes. More than 100,000 people perished of hunger. I have often praised William in this book, but I can say nothing good about this brutal slaughter. God will punish him.” Even his ally, the Pope, scolded him. These were cruel times but even in such times, the harrying of the North was considered very excessive. On his death bed William is supposed to have said,“I persecuted the native inhabitants of England beyond all reason. Whether nobles or commons, I cruelly oppressed them; many I unjustly disinherited; innumerable multitudes, especially in the county of York, perished through me by famine and sword…I am stained with the rivers of blood that I have shed.”
harrying of the northIn the spring of 1070, Sweyn Estrithsson landed again and despite the harrying, the locals helped him. There was little resistance in the north as Sweyn Estrithsson concentrated on the Fens. In 1080 men in Gateshead murdered the bishop of Durham and a hundred Normans, but that was the last of the resistance. However the anti-French feeling lasted for generations, 300 years it is said.
There is little use in thinking about whether our families from the East Riding have any connection with people who lived there before the conquest. There is no way of telling whether there were or weren't returnees to their old home areas. Some historian believe there were many pockets left untouched in the middle of the destruction. But nothing seems really clear so in appears that history starts after 1070.
The picture is a depiction of the harrying from the Bayeux Tapestry.